The concentrations of avenanthramides (AVAs), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), a sucrose-linked truxinic acid (TASE), and certain agronomic parameters were analyzed in organically and conventionally grown oats. Three cultivars of oats (i.e. Freja, Sang, and Matilda) were grown according to standards for both conventional and organic farming in Sweden, from 1998 to 2000. Two levels of nitrogen (N) and three replicates were included. Overall, there were significant differences between years, cultivars, and N rate for AVA concentration in the grains, but there were no differences in concentration as a consequence of the conventional or organic cropping system used. The AVA content was higher in the samples grown in 2000, particularly in the cultivar Matilda, and was negatively affected by higher N rates. The HCAs showed cultivar and year differences, but were not influenced by N rates or the cropping system. The HCA content was highest in Matilda, and was significantly lower in samples grown in 1999. The concentration of TASE differed only between years, and was about 100% higher in samples from 1999, compared with samples from 1998 and 2000. The AVA and HCA concentrations were negatively correlated to the yield and specific weight of the grains and positively correlated to the protein content. Conversely, the concentration of TASE was positively correlated to the yield. The specific parameters responsible for the variation in the phenolic compounds are not known, but it seems that factors affecting the yield and/or the specific weight also affect the concentrations of AVAs, HCAs, and TASE in oat grains.