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1 April 2007 Role of Sea-ice Biota in Nutrient and Organic Material Cycles in the Northern Baltic Sea
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This paper compiles biological and chemical sea-ice data from three areas of the Baltic Sea: the Bothnian Bay (Hailuoto, Finland), the Bothnian Sea (Norrby, Sweden), and the Gulf of Finland (Tvärminne, Finland). The data consist mainly of field measurements and experiments conducted during the BIREME project from 2003 to 2006, supplemented with relevant published data. Our main focus was to analyze whether the biological activity in Baltic Sea sea-ice shows clear regional variability. Sea-ice in the Bothnian Bay has low chlorophyll a concentrations, and the bacterial turnover rates are low. However, we have sampled mainly land-fast level first-year sea-ice and apparently missed the most active biological system, which may reside in deformed ice (such as ice ridges). Our limited data set shows high concentrations of algae in keel blocks and keel block interstitial water under the consolidated layer of the pressure ridges in the northernmost part of the Baltic Sea. In land-fast level sea-ice in the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, the lowermost layer appears to be the center of biological activity, though elevated biomasses can also be found occasionally in the top and interior parts of the ice. Ice algae are light limited during periods of snow cover, and phosphate is generally the limiting nutrient for ice bottom algae. Bacterial growth is evidently controlled by the production of labile dissolved organic matter by algae because low growth rates were recorded in the Bothnian Bay with high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic matter. Bacterial communities in the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland show high turnover rates, and activities comparable with those of open water communities during plankton blooms, which implies that sea-ice bacterial communities have high capacity to process matter during the winter period.
Jorma Kuparinen, Harri Kuosa, Agneta Andersson, Riitta Autio, Mats A. Granskog, Johanna Ikävalko, Hermanni Kaartokallio, Kimmo Karell, Elina Leskinen, Jonna Piiparinen, Janne-Markus Rintala and Jaana Tuomainen "Role of Sea-ice Biota in Nutrient and Organic Material Cycles in the Northern Baltic Sea," AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 36(2), (1 April 2007).[149:ROSBIN]2.0.CO;2

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