We conducted surveys of bats in China between 1999 and 2007, resulting in the identification of at least 62 species. In this paper we present data on 19 species, comprising 12 species from the family Rhinolophidae and seven from the Hipposideridae. Rhinolophids captured were Rhinolophus affinis, R. ferrumequinum, R. lepidus, R. luctus, R. macrotis, R. siamensis, R. marshalli, R. rex, R. pearsonii, R. pusillus, R. sinicus and R. stheno. Because of extensive morphological similarities we question the species distinctiveness of R. osgoodi (may be conspecific with R. lepidus), R. paradoxolophus (which may best be treated as a subspecies of R. rex), R. huananus (probably synonymous with R. siamensis), and we are skeptical as to whether R. sinicus is distinct from R. thomasi. Hipposiderids captured were Hipposideros armiger, H. cineraceus, H. larvatus, H. pomona, H. pratti, Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Coelops frithii. Of these species, two rhinolophids (Rhinolophus marshalli and R. stheno) and one hipposiderid (Hipposideros cineraceus) represent new species records for China. We present data on species' ranges, morphology and echolocation call frequencies, as well as some notes on ecology and conservation status. China hosts a considerable diversity of rhinolophid and hipposiderid bats, yet threats to their habitats and populations are substantial.
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