Otomops madagascariensis is a large (24–27 g) molossid bat endemic to Madagascar. Unlike its congener O. martiensseni, in nearby mainland Africa, little is known about its ecology although it appears to roost only in caves. It is only known from a few sites in the west and occupies a small percentage of the available caves. We studied roosting colonies in seven vertical erosion domes in the roof of a cave in Parc National Tsingy de Bemaraha during July and October 2003. We also captured bats as they emerged from and returned to a roost cave in the south. Female bats examined in the west during October and in the south during November were pregnant. In the roosting colonies, one group contained 57 pregnant females and five adult males. Most other groups also consisted of both sexes but three male-only groups were encountered in October. Diet consisted mainly of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and there was variation between sites and study locations in the contribution of these prey types. Otomops madagascariensis is an obligate cave dweller that appears to be rare within its known range and should be a target species for conservation and research.
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