A second species of Psiloderoides Hesse, namely P. dauresensis Kirk-Spriggs & Evenhuis, sp. n., from the Brandberg Massif, Namibia, is described and illustrated. It differs from P. mansfieldi Hesse in the patterning of the scutum and abdominal tergites, the wing venation, and also antennal structure. The larvae of P. mansfieldi Hesse are associated with locust egg pods in South Africa, and possible Acrididae hosts occurring on the Brandberg are discussed. Relationships of the genus Psiloderoides to other grasshopper-associated genera with vestigial mouthparts are discussed from the Old and New Worlds and an austral vicariance pattern of Gondwanan origin is indicated.
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