Tecoma stans (L.) Juss ex Kunth var. stans (Bignoniaceae), known as yellow bells, was introduced into South Africa as an ornamental plant and now invades roadsides, urban open spaces, watercourses and rocky sites in the subtropical and tropical areas of six South African provinces, and neighbouring countries. Although deemed to be an ‘emerging weed’, Tecoma stans has considerable potential to extend its range because it is still common in South African gardens and its seeds are easily dispersed by wind. Mechanical and chemical control methods are not economically feasible as the plant tends to re-grow, thus requiring expensive follow-up treatments. Biological control research on T. stans has been ongoing since 2003, when pathogens were the focus as agents, with insects included since 2005. Five candidate agents have so far been tested in South Africa, with one, Clydonopteron sacculana Bosc (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), deemed unsuitable for release, one, Prospodium transformans (Ellis & Everh.) Cummins (Pucciniales: Uropyxidaceae), released initially in November 2010, and another, Pseudonapomyza sp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae), currently awaiting approval for release by the regulatory authorities. One candidate agent, Mada polluta (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is still under investigation in quarantine. The last potential agent, a root-feeding flea beetle, Dibolia sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was brought into South Africa but the culture did not establish in quarantine.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.