Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was first recorded in Nigeria in 1991 during a post epidemiological surveillance of yellow fever epidemics in Delta State. In this report, we present a map of the current distribution of Ae. albopictus and its possible epidemiological implications based on accessible records of mosquito fauna in Nigeria using electronic e-journal searching engines. We also report the results of a field study on population dominance between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in a woodland habitat in southwestern Nigeria between March and November 2002. Of over 100 accessible papers on mosquito fauna in Nigeria, only 18 have reported information on Ae. albopictus. Literature shows that Ae. albopictus became well established in southeastern Nigeria and then spread to other southern regions. There was no information about the species in northern Nigeria except Kano where a record of its breeding was reported. Data showed dominance of Ae. albopictus over Ae. aegypti in southeastern Nigeria but the reverse was observed during a field investigation at Ikenne farm settlement in southwestern Nigeria. Aedes albopictus was perhaps involved in the transmission of arboviral infections and Bancroftian filariasis in southern Nigeria. Data show that Ae. albopictus is well established in southern Nigeria but not in arid zones of the country. Its establishment and role as a vector of arboviral infections and Bancroftian filariasis in southern Nigeria should be a source of concern. The present report therefore serves as a baseline map for future epidemiological surveillance and the understanding of ecological distribution of Ae. albopictus in the country.
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