The troodontid Byronosaurus jaffei is known from two specimens from adjacent localities in the Nemegt basin, Ömnögov Aimag, Mongolia. These specimens are composed of well-preserved cranial material and fragmentary postcrania. All of these elements are described here. Byronosaurus jaffei is included in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Coelurosauria to ascertain its relationships. Several interesting characters of Byronosaurus jaffei have implications both for theropod relationships and for understanding patterns of variation within coelurosaurian theropods. These include the position of a foramen that marks the exit of the supra-alveolar canal (which we suggest is homologous with the subnarial foramen), the flattened internarial bar, the unusual interfenestral bar, and the unserrated teeth. Additionally, the well-preserved braincase allows detailed comparison with other troodontid taxa.
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