The genus Proctoporus comprises seven montane species distributed across the Central Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina. Within this genus, the extensive morphological variation observed in populations traditionally assigned to Proctoporus bolivianus suggested the presence of additional species. Using a combination of morphological character differences and a phylogenetic hypothesis based on mitochondrial (12S, 16S, and ND4) and nuclear (c-mos) DNA sequences, we find P. bolivianus to be composed of six distinct lineages. Among these, we name and describe herein Proctoporus carabaya, P. iridescens, and P. kiziriani and we resurrect the name Proctoporus lacertus. The remaining two lineages are also considered unnamed species and are referred herein as confirmed candidate species (CCS), which we refrain from naming due to lack of appropriate material. The new species named herein are found in the departments of Cusco and Puno, Peru, and are distinguishable from all other species of Proctoporus by unique combinations of morphometric, pholidosis, and color-pattern characteristics. A neotype of P. bolivianus is designated.
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