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Richard Henry Beddome (1830–1911) is best known to botanists for his research on the ferns of India. However his contribution to angiosperm taxonomy was also significant, particularly through his Flora Sylvatica for Southern India and Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis. These works were published serially. The composition and publication dates of the parts of these works are reviewed here. A listing is presented of all angiosperm taxa described by Beddome and all new names and combinations he published. This includes some names not currently included in IPNI, or included in IPNI but with different authors or places of publication and later publication dates. An immediate nomenclatural repercussion of the research is confirmation that the recently published avowed substitute Eugenia neogracilis Mazine & Sobral for the Brazilian Eugenia gracilis O. Berg is superfluous as Berg's original publication predated that of Eugenia gracilis Bedd.
The history of the occurrence of Cladium mariscus (Cyperaceae) in NE Poland at the north-eastern limit of its distribution in Europe is discussed. The decline of the species may be related to gradual oligotrophication of its habitats, caused by the isolation of calcareous deposits and the decline of calcium carbonate in the substratum. The presence of C. mariscus in Kojle and Perty, lakes in NE Poland, is related to the occurrence of calcareous sediments, which may compensate for the lack of sufficient warmth. The occurrence of calcium carbonate in the substratum allows for the growth of C. mariscus in areas that are influenced significantly by a continental climate. The abundance of Ca2 cations in the substratum compensates for that climatic factor.
Calamus is the largest genus in the palm family (Arecaceae) and contains many species of high ecological and economical value. In this study, we assessed the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), matK, rbcL, trnH—psbA, as well as two combinations, matK rbcL and matK rbcL trnH—psbA, as DNA barcodes for Calamus using 15 species or varieties distributed in China. ITS may exist as multiple copies in the examined Calamus species, and was eliminated from consideration as a possible barcode. The trnH-psbA spacer had the most variation, followed by matK and rbcL. No separations between intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence (barcoding gaps) were found in the remaining candidate barcodes. At the species level, the discrimination rates of the candidate barcodes based on neighbor-joining (NJ) trees were significantly different: matK (37.5%), rbcL (6.3%), trnH-psbA (56.3%), matK rbcL (43.8%) and matK rbcL trnH—psbA (62.5%). Furthermore, the discrimination rates of trnH—psbA would improve to 91.7%, if the varieties of C. nambariensis and C. yunnanensis were treated as one species in the NJ tree. Thus, trnH—psbA may be an appropriate single DNA barcode for Calamus useful in the species identification.
In fire-prone environments, studying the variability of regeneration traits is important to show the potential of plant species to survive under consecutive post-fire and fire-free conditions. We studied the relationship between seed size and germination patterns in Cistus salviifolius (Cistaceae), which is a fire-follower species distributed throughout the Mediterranean Basin. Since fire plays an important role in the life cycle of the studied species, we made a germination experiment that included a heat-shock treatment (to simulate fire) and a control without a heat-shock (to simulate fire-free conditions) using seeds collected from individual plants to assess within-population germination responses to fire. Seed germination of most of the individuals was stimulated by heat-shock, but the germination characteristics showed substantial variation among individuals within the population. Mean seed mass (i.e. seed size) was positively correlated with germination percentage in the heat treatment, but no correlation was found between seed mass and germination percentage in the control. On the other hand, mean seed mass was negatively correlated with seed mortality both in the heatshock treatment and in the control. The results show that even if the response of the majority of the individuals in the population follows the population-level germination response of the species, a significant variability in germination actually exists within this population (among individuals). Individuals with larger seeds may be favored in post-fire conditions, while seed size is unimportant in fire-free conditions. Together with the positive selective pressure of seed predation over small-seeded individuals, fire shapes the within-population variability of the regeneration traits such as seed size and post-fire germination in C. salviifolius. This variability might have evolved as a bet-hedging strategy against unpredictable conditions in the Mediterranean environment, especially the occurrence of fire and fire-free periods.
Altogether 137 species of polypores were identified, based on specimens collected from the Guangxi Autonomous Region, southern China. A checklist of the polypores with collection data is supplied. Three new species, Junghuhnia flabellata H.S. Yuan & Y.C. Dai, Rigidoporus fibulatus H.S. Yuan & Y.C. Dai and Trechispora suberosa H.S. Yuan & Y.C. Dai, are described and illustrated. Junghuhnia flabellata is characterized by its fiabelliform basidiocarps, small pores and small basidiospores, and skeletoystidia mostly present in dissepiments. Rigidoporus fibulatus is characterized by ceraceous to cartilaginous basidiocarps, clamp connections on generative hyphae and broadly ellipsoid to subglobose basidiospores. Trechispora suberosa is a poroid species with corky basidiocarps, ovoid to subglobose basidiospores with a finely echinulate ornamentation, and the absence of crystals on hyphae.
Epiphytic lichen communities were studied in old coniferous forests across Estonia to find out the effect of site openness on the lichen species richness. All lichen species were recorded on the basal 2 m of 105 Picea abies and 105 Pinus sylvetsris trunks. The canopy openness readings were taken with a spherical densiometer around every sampled tree. The number of species on the trunks of both tree species increased significantly with increasing canopy openness. Nine lichen species, e.g. Cladonia cenotea, Lecidea nylanderi, Platismatia glauca, were significantly favoured by higher light availability, and only one species, Coenogonium pineti, by lower light availability. The results demonstrate that in the coniferous forests higher light availability supports higher species richness of epiphytic lichens on the lower trunk of trees.
A new polypore, Aporpium macroporum Niemelä, Spirin & Miettinen, is described on the basis of material from Finland, Poland (Białowieza National Park; type locality), European Russia, Belarus, Estonia, and Latvia. It grows primarily on fallen aspen trees and prefers old forests with abundant coarse woody debris. Aporpium caryae is an American taxon, and its European kin is A. canescens; A. macroporum differs from them in having wider pores, softer consistency, and paler colours. The spores of the new species are wider than in A. canescens, and longer than in A. caryae. The three species can be distinguished by their ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. We briefly discuss the heterobasidioid genera Aporpium, Elmerina and Protomerulius.
A new species Dillenia tetrapetala Joongku Lee, T.B. Tran & R.K. Choudhary (Dilleniaceae) is described from HonBa Nature Reserve of the Khanh Hoa province of Vietnam. Detailed illustrations and taxonomic comments are provided along with a table listing the differential characters to the closely similar taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using nrITS region of ribosomal DNA and psbA—trnH intergenic spacer region of chloroplast DNA sequences were also performed and they supported the status of D. tetrapetala as a distinct species. The plant is considered endangered based on the IUCN red list criteria because of its restricted distribution.
Four new Colombian species of Cleistes (Orchidaceae, Vanilloideae) are described and illustrated: C. uribei Szlach. & Baranow, C. risoraldensis Szlach. & Baranow, C. munchiquensis Szlach. & Baranow and C. idroboi Szlach. & Baranow. Notes concerning their morphological distinctions, habitat, and distribution are provided. A key for determination of the Colombian species of Cleistes is included.
A new species of Viola (Violaceae) from Jiangxi Province, China, is described and illustrated. Viola jinggangshanensis Z.L. Ning & J.P. Liao is the sixth species in Viola sect. Diffusae, and is distinct from the sympatric V. diffusa by having conspicuously stipitate spherical glands on the lateral petals, sepals with dark-red spots, leaf blade adaxially dark green, abaxially purplish, both surfaces densely papillose-hispid, base of leaves shallowly cordate or truncate, narrowly decurrent on petioles, and capsules ovoid-orbicular, 3–4 mm long and 1.5–2 mm in diameter.
A description of Taraxacum zajacii J. & P. Marciniuk, a new species of T. sect. Palustria in Poland is given. Taraxacum zajacii is a pentaploid (2n = 40). Morphologically, the new species is closest to the T. subalpinum/T. neterophilum group.
A new species of Gesneriaceae, Ancylostemon dimorphosepalus W.H. Chen & Y.M. Shui, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by its cordate leaves, purple flowers, dimorphous sepals, and small upper lobes of the corolla. Its relationships with the similar species, Ancylostemon aureus and Oreocharis rotundifolia, are discussed.
Current studies have shown that Embelia aberrans Walker is a member of Sadiria because its corollas unite above the middle and its inflorescences are very short in axillary, subfasciculate cymes. Therefore, the new combination Sadiria aberrans (Walker) C.M. Hu & Y.F. Deng is proposed.
Two new species of Elatostema from Guangxi, China are described and illustrated. They are E. sexcostatum W.T. Wang, C.X. He & L.F. Fu, which is morphologically most similar to E. balansae, and E. oligophlebium W.T. Wang, Y.G. Wei & L.F. Fu, which is morphologically most similar to E. obtusum and E. crassiusculum.
Klasea nana Ranjbar & Negaresh sp. nova (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated. It is confined to the Khorasan Province in northeastern Iran and closely resembles K. latifolia, but differs from it by having a shorter habit, smaller basal leaves, and arachnoid phyllaries.
A new species, Dyckia inflexifolia Guarçoni & MA. Sartori (Bromeliaceae), is described and illustrated as a species restricted in the ferruginous rocky soils vegetation in the municipality of Sêrro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species forms a complex with D. ursina and D. sordida, being compared to the latter, to which it appears most closely related.
Bunium allioides B. Bani, Pimenov & Adigüzel sp. nova (Apiaceae), is described and illustrated from southern (Mediterranean) Turkey. The taxonomic affinities of the new species were determined by analysing morphological data and a molecular phylogenetic study of nrDNA ITS sequences. Bunium allioides belongs to the section Elegantia, and is related to B. paucifolium and B. elegans.
Magnolia hookeri var. longirostrata D.X. Li & R.Z. Zhou, a new variety from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated. Its pollen morphology is also analyzed. It is morphologically closely allied to M. hookeri, but differs in its smaller carpels, longer and narrower gynoecia, longer and glabrous peduncles, longer fruit aggregates, and small-tuberculate follicles with longer beaks at the apex.
A new species, Rhododendron cochlearifolium Xiang Chen & Jiayong Huang (Ericaceae), from Guizhou Province, China is described and illustrated. It differs from the most morphologically similar species R. irroratum and R. agastum mainly by having small and spoon-like leaf blades, a more floriferous inflorescence, a shorter rachis, a corolla with no nectar pouches, glabrous filaments and a densely tomentose, eglandular ovary.
Gypsophila yusufeliensis Budak sp. nova (Caryophyllaceae) is described from Yusufeli (Artvin province, Turkey). It resembels especially G. patrinii. The diagnostic characters, as well as a full description and figures of new species are provided.
Dendrocalamus nianhei V.T. Nguyen & V.L. Le sp. nova (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) is described and illustrated. It resembles D. sinicus, but differs mainly by its shorter pseudospikelets, 12–16 mm long; shorter lemma, 9.7–14.9 mm long; glabrous culm internodes; undulate and bristly culm sheath auricles; and entire leaf sheath ligule.