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The Sorbus arranensis group in Norway consists of five species (S. lancifolia, S. neglecta, S. sognensis, S. subarranensis, S. subpinnata), previously confused with S. arranensis from Scotland. These five species are triploid and apomictic, local or narrowly distributed, originating from hybridization between S. aria s. lato and S. aucuparia. In this nomenclatural survey, the names S. sognensis and S. subarranensis are validly published, and lectotypes are designated for S. lancifolia, S. neglecta and S. subpinnata from the collection of T. Hedlund at UPS. The history of studies in this group is briefly outlined, and conditions for valid publication of each name are reviewed. A complete review of associated data (nomenclature, synonymy, descriptions, line drawings, distributions, chromosome counts, conservation status) is compiled.
Four new species in the genus Epilyna (Orchidaceae) are described and illustrated. Their taxonomic affinities are briefly discussed and drawings of their assumed relatives are presented. One of the new species is simultaneously the first record of the genus for Peru. An identification key to all known Epilyna species is provided.
In the course of a taxonomic revision of Hedysarum sect. Crinifera (Fabaceae) in Iran, specimens of a gypsophilous plant from Lorestan Province were found to differ considerably from the previously described species in that group. Consequently, a new species, H. gypsophilum Dehshiri, is described and illustrated. Its taxonomy relative to the closest relatives is discussed, and a key to the Iranian species of Hedysarum sect. Crinifera is provided.
A new moss species in Pottiaceae, Didymodon canoae C. Feng, J. Kou & L. Feng, is described and illustrated from Inner Mongolia, China. It is characterized mainly by blackish-green plants; stems with a hyalodermis and without a sclerodermis; ovatelanceolate to lingulate-lanceolate leaves with acuminate apices; weakly recurved, unistratose leaf margins crenulate by papillose and bulging cells; unistratose and strongly bulging laminal cells with knob-like papillae or mamillose; a costa lacking or with just one layer of ventral stereids and an hyaline area of rectangular cells on the ventral surface. Didymodon canoae is compared with morphologically similar species.
A new moss species, Bryoerythrophyllum pseudomarginatum J. Kou, X.-M. Shao & C. Feng (Pottiaceae), is described and illustrated from Tibet, China. It is most similar to B. hostile, but differs from it by having much larger plants, branched stems, oblonglanceolate to lingulate leaves with broadly acute or round and apiculate apices, leaf margins that are strongly recurved from above leaf base to distal 1/2–1/3 leaf length and distantly and irregularly dentate above, a weakly differentiated, discontinuous border consisting of several weakly papillose, transparent marginal cells in one row, a strong and percurrent costa, and by having thickened transverse walls in basal leaf cells.
Silene langshanensis L.Q. Zhao, Y.Z. Zhao & Z.M. Xin sp. nova (Caryophyllaceae), is described and illustrated from Inner Mongolia, China. It appears to be most closely related to S. scabrifolia of Silene sect. Holopetalae. Silene langshanensis can be distinguished by the basally pubescent carpophore, petals with obtuse auricles, stems and leaves with dense, short hairs, and by the glabrous calyx.
The name Linum aretioides Boiss. is lectotypified. The lectotype and isolectotypes are stored in the Herbarium of the Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques la Ville de Genève (G) and at the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden Kew (K), respectively.
The mesomorphic Poa palustris and P. nemoralis (section Stenopoa) have generated a taxonomically complicated hybrid aggregate, which is known as P. intricata. In order to study the morphological and genetic diversity of P. intricata in western Siberia, we analyzed six populations from a range of geographical locations and ecological conditions in the study area, and one “typical” population of P. nemoralis from a European locality. Results of morphometric multivariate analyses based on 29 characters and 699 individuals revealed that most of the populations contain a mixture of morphotypes, combining character states of both parental species. These transitional forms showed neither geographical nor ecological affiliation. No genetic structure was found using ISSR markers, suggesting continuous gene flow. Our results suggest a hybrid origin of almost all the studied P. nemoralis and P. palustris individuals in western Siberia, which taxonomically can be attributed to P. intricata aggr.
Myosotis laxa s. lato (Boraginaceae) is a morphologically highly variable taxon. We examined whether, in the Baltic Sea region, the coastal form of M. laxa has a single centre of origin or if it has emerged due to landscape dissimilarity (sea/land ratio) and environmental factors independently in different regions. We used partial Mantel's test to investigate correlations between the genetic and phenotypic variability of M. laxa and the mentioned habitat factors. Although the correlation between genetic distance and the sea/land ratio existed (p < 0.01), it was not strong (r = 0.34). Phenotypic distance among populations was not correlated with habitat factors. Similarly, there was no correlation between geographic distance and morphological characteristics of the studied populations. As neither phenotypic nor genetic dissimilarity between sampled locations was correlated with geographic distance, we suggest that the coastal form can arise independently in suitable habitats and its development may be caused by epigenetic regulation. However, gene flow among the coastal and mainland populations most likely prevents stronger adaptive and genetic divergence.
Ornithogalum boissieri Bidarlord & F. Ghahrem. (Asparagaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from the Talesh Mountains (NW Iran). The morphological characters that distinguish it from the most similar species O. cuspidatum are given. Information on the ecology and distribution of O. boissieri is also presented.
Euphorbia seshachalamensis K. Prasad & Prasanna sp. nova is described from the Seshachalam Hills of Andhra Pradesh, India. It belongs to the subgenus Euphorbia and the section Euphorbia, and is distinct from all the described tuberous species by its synanthous flowering, oblong-obovate, acuminate bracts, rectangular involucral lobes with five glands more than 2 mm long, and hairy seeds.
Malaxis sibundoyensis Kolan., Medina Tr. & Szlach. sp. nova (Orchidaceae) from southern Colombia is described and illustrated. It resembles M. quadrata, from which it differs by the alternate leaves and lip middle lobule being much shorter than lateral lobules. A key to identification of Colombian species of Malaxis is provided.
Taraxacum majoricense A. Galán & L. Sáez sp. nova collected from Mallorca in the Balearic Islands is described and illustrated. It is characterized by rough leaves with wide lobes, and by violet achenes. A key to all species of Taraxacum known from the Balearic Islands is provided. Taraxacum tarraconense Sennen is neotypified and newly described. Taraxacum cacuminatum, T. catalanum, T. marklundii and T. tarraconense are new records for the Balearic Islands.
This paper presents an analysis of the disjunctive distribution patterns of vascular plants in the central part of the Sudetes, a mountain range in central Europe. These disjunctions concern mainly species occurring in the highest massifs located over 100 km apart. We studied (1) distribution patterns of 55 taxa in the Sudetes defined on the basis of chorological studies, (2) types of distribution of these plants in Europe based on a hierarchic system of floristic geoelements, and (3) vertical ranges of taxa with a special focus on their absolute minimum and maximum altitudes. The disjunctions were formed during warm periods of the Holocene; in the central part of the Sudetes, there are no relic treeless habitats that could explain the occurrence of the studied species. The largest refugia of these species are in glacial cirques and nival hollows of the Karkonosze Mts. (Poland) and the Hrubý Jesenik Mts. (Czech Republic).
Rosa longshoushanica L.Q. Zhao & Y.Z. Zhao, a new species from Gansu and Inner Mongolia, China, is described and illustrated. It is placed in Rosa sect. Cinnamomeae ser. Beggerianae due to the following characters: leaflets 5–9, flowers with bracts, sepals after anthesis deciduous. Rosa longshoushanica differs from the morphologically closest species R. willmottiae by the sepals being abaxially densely pubescent and stipitate glandular, puberulous leaflets, and hooked prickles that are in pairs below the leaves.
Rhodiola sedoides Lidén & P. Bharali (Crassulaceae), an alpine hermaphroditic species from NW Arunachal Pradesh, India, is described as new to science and compared with other low-growing, hermaphroditic and narrow-leaved alpine Rhodiola species.
Hapalorchis dominicii E. Parra, Szlach. & S. Nowak sp. nova (Orchidaceae, Spiranthinae) from Colombia is described and illustrated. Its taxonomic position and similarity to other Colombian representatives of the genus are discussed. An idendtification key to Colombian species of Hapalorchis is provided. The species is considered as Critically Endangered (CR), based on the highly restricted distribution, small population size, and habitat degradation.
Several names in the ornamental aquatic plant genus Echinodorus (Alismataceae) have remained dubious due to insufficient taxonomic descriptions, sterility of the type material, and apparent hybridism. Non-destructive (or nearly so) DNA sequencing methods provide means to match inadequate type specimens with other specimens in order to clarify nomenclatural instability caused by conflicting interpretations of poor type material. In this study, my aim was to shed light on several names of uncertain applicability in Echinodorus.
The Linnaean names Centaurea aegyptiaca, C. behen, C. scabiosa and C. verutum (Asteraceae) are lectotypified using three specimens from Linnaeus's herbarium and a Rauwolf illustration. The designations are based on an assessment of Linnaeus's original material.
Camellia luteopallida Luong, T.Q.T. Nguyen & Luu (Theaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Central Highlands, southern Vietnam. It is morphologically distinct in having a distinctly pale yellow corolla with basally light orange tinted petals, terminal, solitary (rarely 2) and upright flowers, spirally arranged and densely hairy perules and petals, 3 densely hairy connate styles, and a 3-carpellate and glabrous ovary. Morphological data suggest its placement in sect. Dalatia.
Slime nets, Labyrinthula sp., were found associated with several seagrass species, e.g., Zannichellia palustris, Zostera marina and Myriophyllum sibiricum, and on the alga Vaucheria sp. in autumn and winter samples from western Åland (N Baltic Sea, salinity 4–6 PSU). Labyrinthula survived for many months and increased in dark and cool conditions among decaying plants, indicating a non-parasitic mode of life. Labyrinthula colonies from natural samples were studied in small chambers where the organism, even in cool water, settled and made new slimeways, filopods and lamellipods on the bottom glass. Labyrinthula was preyed upon by several amoeba species. Slime nets have probably been overlooked and they are seldom reported from the Baltic Sea.