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Primula scopulicola G. Hao, C.M. Hu & Y. Xu sp. nova (Primulaceae) is described and illustrated from Sichuan, China. From general morphology it is clearly allied to the section Monocarpicae, which is characterized by the presence of multicellular hairs, distinctly petiolate leaves, a campanulate calyx, and a globose or cylindrical capsule dehiscing by valves. Primula scopulicola is similar to P. lithophila, but can be distinguished by having smaller flowers, with calyx splitting almost to the base, and the capsule being globose rather than cylindrical. It also resembles P. cavaleriei, but can be readily separated by its calyx splitting near to the base, and by the shorter petioles.
Fargesia microauriculata M.S. Sun, D.Z. Li & H.Q. Yang (Poaceae, Bambusoideae), a new species from the southern end of the Gaoligong Mountain Range in northwestern Yunnan Province of China, is described and illustrated. It resembles F. albocerea, F. lushuiensis and F. papyrifera, but is distinguished by internodes' distal parts being densely covered by brown setae, nodes without white powder and wax, brown-red young culm sheaths, auricles of culm sheaths 5 mm long and 1–2 mm wide, as well as by 2–4 florets per spikelet, a 3–5 mm long pistil, and 2 stigmata. It is only known from the alpine region at 2900–3200 m a.s.l. at Pianma Town of Lushui County.
Genera Plantarum by George Bentham and Joseph Hooker is a highly influential work in the history of plant classification. However, the importance of the work for names at the rank of species is equivocal. Bentham and Hooker proposed transferring many species to different genera without making the required new combinations. Many such supposed combinations were attributed to Genera Plantarum, particularly in Index Kewensis. Species names attributed to Genera Plantarum are reviewed herein. Typification of species described in Genera Plantarum is also analysed. Many citations of the valid publication of combinations are listed that should replace the incorrect ones still given in reference works. Simira podocarpa (Benth.) I.M. Turner, comb. nova and Erigeron emodi I.M. Turner, nom. nov. are proposed. Litsea elongata (Nees) Benth. ex Hook. f. is a later homonym that should be replaced by Litsea faberi Hemsl. Peucedanum diversifolium H. Wolff is not a later homonym and should be used rather than P. chinense M. Hiroe.
Didymodon epapillatus J. Kou, X.-M. Shao & C. Feng sp. nova (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta) is described and illustrated from Maizhokunggar County in central Tibet of China. It is most similar to D. luridus Hornsch., but differs by its usually obtuse or rounded leaf apex, leaf margins usually recurved just above the base to nearly the apex, bistratose, and 1–2 layers of ventral stereids of costa. Information on its distribution and habitat preferences is also provided.
Dendrobium anilii P.M. Salim, J. Mathew & Szlach., a new orchid species from Wayanad, part of the southern Western Ghats, India, is described. Diagnostic morphological characters, distribution, and photographs of the new species are presented. Dendrobium anilii resembles D. anamalayanum and D. diodon subsp. kodayarensis in its appearance but differs from those in several characters.
The current circumscription of Sorbus subdanubialis includes several taxa. By lectotypification this name is applied to a species that is restricted to the Gömör-Torna Karst in southeastern Slovakia and adjacent Hungary. A new description and revised distribution map of S. subdanubialis are presented. Using flow cytometry analysis it is recognised as triploid. Other populations from the Buda and Pilis Mts., the western Balaton Uplands and Keszthely Mts., previously assigned to S. subdanubialis, turned out to represent two undescribed triploid and presumably apomictic species, endemic to Hungary. The former records of S. subdanubialis from the Vértes Mts. belong mostly to S. pannonica and S. ulmifolia, both endemic to western Hungary. A morphometric analysis of leaf characters demonstrated that the leaf dentation and leaf dimensions are most important in distinguishing between S. subdanubialis, S. danubialis and two undescribed species (to be described later), whereas the leaf shape (apex and base) has an important but secondary role in discriminating among these taxa.
Two triploid and presumably apomictic species of Sorbus (Rosaceae), endemic to Hungary, are described as new to science: S. ujhelyii Somlyay & Sennikov from the Buda and Pilis Mts. within the Transdanubian Mts. in Budapest and its vicinities, and S. keszthelyensis Somlyay & Sennikov from the western Balaton Uplands and Keszthely Mts. in the westernmost part of the Hungarian Middle Range in Transdanubia. These taxa have so far been included in S. subdanubialis.
Pastinaca erzincanensis Menemen & Kandemir (Apiaceae) is described as a new species, restricted to a single location in Erzincan Province, Turkey. To describe the species and assess its phylogenetic placement, field-collected and herbarium specimens were examined for morphological, fruit anatomical/micromorphological and palynological variation and included in a molecular phylogenetic study. Comparisons of leaf morphology, palynology and fruit anatomy suggest an affinity with Pastinaca (Tordylieae tribe Tordyliinae), although the presence of vittae in the fruit ribs is unique within the genus. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of nrDNA ITS sequences from representative members of tribe Tordylieae show that P. erzincanensis nests within a well-supported clade comprising members of Pastinaca, Malabaila and Trigonosciadium. Within a poorly supported Pastinaca s. lato clade, P. erzincanensis is sister group to M. pastinacifolia, with P. pimpinellifolia, P. yildizii and M. brachytaenia placed as successive sister taxa. Pastinaca erzincanensis differs from M. pastinacifolia, P. pimpinellifolia, P. yildizii and M. brachytaenia by having nine vittae on its dorsal mericarp surface (four vallecular and five rib vittae) and no commissural vittae. Based on characters of leaf morphology, palynology and fruit anatomy, and the molecular phylogenetic analysis results, we recognize the new species as belonging to the genus Pastinaca.
This paper presents an annotated list of bryophyte species recorded within the present area of Poland and Kaliningrad Oblast (Russia), which were published in various botanical works between 1590 and 1730 in the pre-Linnaean period of plant taxonomy. Amongst a number of early botanical works, two catalogues are of special importance. These are the treatise on plants of the Kingdom of Poland by G. Rzączyński, of 1721, and a catalogue of plants recorded in the vicinity of Warsaw by H. C. Erndtel, of 1730. The first bryological records from the area of contemporary Poland originate from the village of Miłomłyn (German Liebemühl) and from the vicinity of the city of Gdańsk (German Danzig) and were published in 1590 and in 1643, respectively. In the pre-Linnaean period of botany, 24 bryophyte species were known from the area of today's Poland, including two liverworts and 22 mosses. For each species, localities are provided and polynomial synonyms appearing in the early literature are thoroughly discussed.
The nothospecies name Thymus × pseudoalpestris Ronniger ex Ferd. Weber (1958) was not validly published, because no herbarium specimen was indicated as a nomenclatural type. The name is validated here.
Humulago Doweld nom. nov. (Cannabaceae) replaces the fossil HumulariaDorofeev 1982, non extant HumulariaDuvigneaud 1954 (Fabaceae). Two fossil species, based on fruits from the Oligocene sediments of Western Siberia (Russian Federation) are recognized as Humulago tymensis (Dorofeev) Doweld comb. nova and Humulago reticulata (Dorofeev) Doweld comb. nova.
Cirsium rechingeri Negaresh nom. nov. replaces C. lappaceum (M. Bieb.) Fisch. (1812), which is an illegitimate name, being a younger homonym of C. lappaceum Lam. (1778). Two new combinations and five lectotypifications are proposed here. Images of type specimens of C. rechingeri var. rechingeri, C. rechingeri var. ferox and C. rechingeri var. tomentosum are provided.
Jasminum vietnamense B.H. Quang & Joongku Lee, sp. nova (Oleaceae) from Quang Nam province of Vietnam is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to J. adenophyllum, J. fuchsiifolium and J. pierranum, but differs from them by having a comparatively smaller calyx tube, absence of domatia at vein axils of the leaf, and by considerably smaller bracts.
In 2013 we surveyed 116 plots under electricity pylons and 116 reference plots. The basal areas of pylons were 6 m2, 21 m2 or 32 m2. Plots under pylons had higher total numbers of species than reference plots, with grassland plots as an exception. Herbaceous species occurring exclusively within pylon plots were more numerous than those exclusively in reference plots (with the exception of grassland). Pylon plots also had a higher Shannon's diversity index (H′) of herbaceous plant species, again with the exception of grassland plots. Species number and H′ increased with increasing plot area under pylons among cereal and maize fields. A different trend was recorded in grassland; with increasing plot size the differences in species richness and diversity between pylon and reference plots became less distinct. Regardless of plot area, the Jaccard index was usually low and did not exceed a value of 0.20. It may be concluded that electricity pylons act as refuges for many plant species, which makes them biodiversity hotspots in farmland. Species richness and diversity under pylons differs markedly from those of nearby farmland. Such vegetation patches under electricity pylons form a substantial network of floristically diverse refuges within an unfavourable matrix.
A new species of Gesneriaceae, Primulina gigantea F. Wen, B. Pan & W.H. Luo from Guanyang County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, is described and illustrated. It is known from fewer than one hundred mature individuals so it appears to be endangered. Primulina gigantea is compared with the morphologically close P. lungzhouensis and P. roseoalba.
Silene sect. Holopetalae is represented by five species in China, of which a synopsis with updated descriptions and distribution data with an identification key is provided. Silene holopetala is a synonym of S. sibirica, S. pseudotenuis is a synonym of S. kungessana, and recently described S. langshanensis is hereby reduced to the synonym of S. gubanovii. Silene orientalimongolica is not a member of S. sect. Holopetalae but the correct name for S. linnaeana. A new combination, S. sect. Sibiricae (Devyatov & V.N. Tikhom.) Lazkov & Sennikov is proposed to classify this species in Silene. The Chinese records of S. scabrifolia (syn. S. komarovii) belong to S. sibirica or S. gebleriana, and the records of S. holopetala are referable to S. pseudoholopetala. A new combination, S. sibirica var. holopetala (Bunge) Lazkov, is proposed for a variant of S. sibirica with a pubescent calyx. The distribution of S. gubanovii is presented on a map. With these corrections, the total number of species in Silene sect. Holopetalae is 17.