Cage-trapping is one of the control methods frequently used by hunters to remove red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Spain, although its low efficiency and selectivity have been frequently reported. We tested the effect of the combinations of two bait types (live/ dead) and two scent attractants (fox urine/valerian extract) in order to improve the efficiency and selectivity of cage traps in central Spain. The combination of live bait and fox urine increased the efficiency of cage traps to capture red foxes in comparison with live bait alone. None of the experimental treatments led to a significant reduction in the capture rate of non-target species, selectivity levels were always low (0%–21%) and non-target species were captured. In view of that, the burden of releasing captured non-target animals depends ultimately on the trapper. For this reason, the use of cage traps is still questionable for managing foxes in Spain.
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