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1 November 2009 Reassessment of Scaphiopus neuter (Anura: Pelobatoidea: Pelobatidae), Based on New Material from Anceney, Montana (Early Barstovian)
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Anuran fossils from the middle Miocene, early Barstovian Anceney Locality in Gallatin County, Montana, are described and identified as Scaphiopus neuter Kluge, 1966. The material consists of many isolated, complete to partial bones that represent most elements of the skeleton. Scaphiopus neuter was previously known by the holotype, a partial skeleton, from the late Oligocene, early Arikareean of South Dakota and a partial ilium from the Arikareean of Nebraska, and thus the new material increases the geologic age and geographic distribution of the species. Results from a phylogenetic analysis conducted to test the relationship of Sc. neuter to other pelobatids places it in a clade containing four extant species of Spea Cope, 1866. The new combination, Spea neuter (Kluge, 1966), is proposed for the oldest and only extinct member of this genus currently known. Within Spea, Sp. neuter is the sister taxon to the clade comprised of Spea intermontana (Cope, 1863) Spea bombifrons (Cope, 1863), a relationship supported by one synapomorphy: the septum nasi of the sphenethmoid forms a laterally expanded, vertical plate at its anterior end. Relationships of other members of Spea remain unresolved. A stratocladogram based on the pelobatid phylogeny presented here suggests an approximately 28 Ma ghost lineage for Spea.
and Amy C. Henrici "Reassessment of Scaphiopus neuterKluge, 1966 (Anura: Pelobatoidea: Pelobatidae), Based on New Material from Anceney, Montana (Early Barstovian)," Annals of Carnegie Museum 78(3), (1 November 2009).

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