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1 July 2008 Biology of Protortonia navesi (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae), a New Cassava Pest in Brazil, with Notes on Its Behavior in the Field
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Abstract

Protortonia navesi Fonseca (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) is a scale insect recently reported as a new cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) crop pest in central Brazil. The biology P. navesi was studied under controlled and field conditions, and some aspects of its field behavior were recorded. The laboratory experiments were carried out from August to December 2004 under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 23% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 [L:D] h), and the field experiment from September 2003 to August 2004, at Planaltina, Federal District, Brazil. In the laboratory, P. navesi showed a 69.2-day cycle from oviposition to adult eclosion, going through three nymphal stages in 44.5 d, on average. The females reproduced by thelytokous parthenogenesis, with an average oviposition capacity of 239.6 eggs per female. No males were observed in this species. In the field, P. navesi had a permanent underground population. However, from September to December 2004, the aerial parts of plants were colonized by part of this population, which was controlled by the predator Exoplectra sp. (Coccinellidae). Individuals of P. navesi were observed to be active on cassava roots in the field throughout the year, suggesting that this scale insect may have at least five generations per year in central Brazil.

RESUMO A cochonilha Protortonia navesi Fonseca (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) foi relatada recentemente como uma nova praga na cultura da mandioca no Brasil Central. Nós estudamos a biologia de P. navesi em condições controladas e observamos alguns aspectos do seu comportamento em campo. Os estudos foram conduzidos em laboratório (25 ± 2°C; UR 70 ± 23%; 12 h fotofase) de agosto a dezembro de 2004 e em campo de setembro de 2003 a agosto de 2004, em Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Em laboratório P. navesi apresentou um ciclo (ovo-adulto) de 69,2 dias, passando por três estádios ninfais com duração total de 44,5 dias. As fêmeas se reproduziram por partenogênese telítoca, sendo capazez de colocar em média 239,6 ovos. Não foram observados machos nesta espécie. Em campo, P. navesi apresentou uma população subterrânea permanente. Entretanto, de setembro a dezembro, parte dessa população colonizou a parte aérea das plantas, sendo controlada pelo predador Exoplectra sp. (Coccinellidae). No campo foram observadas fases ativas do inseto, em raízes de plantas de mandioca, durante todo ano sugerindo que a cochonilha pode produzir pelo menos cinco gerações por ano.

Charles Martins de Oliveira, Marina Regina Frizzas, Josefino de Freitas Fialho, and Penny J. Gullan "Biology of Protortonia navesi (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae), a New Cassava Pest in Brazil, with Notes on Its Behavior in the Field," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101(4), (1 July 2008). https://doi.org/10.1603/0013-8746(2008)101[779:BOPNHM]2.0.CO;2
Received: 20 December 2007; Accepted: 1 March 2008; Published: 1 July 2008
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