Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito indigenous to Asia, now an invasive species worldwide, is an important vector for several arboviruses. Genetic analysis using the mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene was carried out in populations from Cameroon (n = 50), Hawaii (n = 38), Italy (n = 20), the continental United States, Brazil, and its native range. Data for Brazil, the continental United States, and the native range was obtained from Birungi and Munstermann (2002). Direct sequencing was used to identity unique haplotypes. The limited phylogeographic partitioning of haplotypes with low levels of sequence divergence in both Cameroon and Hawaii was consistent with the population structure of Ae. albopictus in the United States and Brazil. Four new haplotypes were identified from the samples from Cameroon and Hawaii, adding to previously described haplotypes. Hawaii shared a haplotype with Cameroon that was unique to these two regions. Hawaii also had higher overall haplotype diversity than seen in previous continental United States, Brazil, or native range populations. Hawaiian, Cameroon, and Italian populations did not share haplotypes with Brazil, which validates the earlier mitochondrial DNA studies indicating a separate introduction of this species into Brazil.
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