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1 September 2009 Courtship Songs of Chrysoperla nipponensis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Delineate Two Distinct Biological Species in Eastern Asia
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Abstract
The substrate-borne vibrational courtship songs of type A and type B Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are described in detail, from populations sampled throughout Japan and near Beijing, China. The song of type A is long (≈ 5–6 s) and is made up of numerous (four to 12) volleys of four distinct forms that differ in their carrier frequencies. The song of type B is shorter (≈2 s) and functions as a repeated single-volley song, but each volley is shown here to consist of four to six distinct subsections. During heterosexual duets, partners of type A exchange their long multi-volley songs, whereas partners of type B repeatedly exchange short single-volley songs. Geographical variation within each song type is low and largely insignificant. In addition, previously recognized mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) haplotypes Al and A2 of type A C. nipponensis do not have different songs. These results support the hypothesis that types A and B C. nipponensis are distinct species, with type A corresponding to the nominate species (i.e., C. nipponensis s. str.) and type B as yet unnamed. Their songs are among the most complex yet found in the Chrysoperla carnea swarm of cryptic species.
© 2009 Entomological Society of America
Charles S. Henry, Atsushi Mochizuki, Kengo Nakahira, Naoto Haruyama and Masashi Nomura "Courtship Songs of Chrysoperla nipponensis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Delineate Two Distinct Biological Species in Eastern Asia," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 102(5), (1 September 2009). https://doi.org/10.1603/008.102.0502
Received: 16 January 2009; Accepted: 1 May 2009; Published: 1 September 2009
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