Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is an invasive, container-inhabiting mosquito that was introduced into North America from Japan in 1985. Although previous studies using neutral biochemical markers have found high levels of population differentiation across both the North American and global distribution of Ae. albopictus, relatively little is known regarding evolutionary differentiation of life history traits underpinning fitness. We performed common-garden and line-cross experiments to examine the genetic differentiation of fitness (r')and underlying performance traits at three spatial scales: 1) local (among populations within Florida), 2) regional (between populations from Florida and New Jersey), and 3) long distance (between populations from Florida and Hawaii, Malaysia, and Japan). We found that North American populations (Florida and New Jersey) had lower fitness (r') than populations from outside North America (Hawaii, Malaysia, and Japan). Bivariate means of female, but not male, pupal mass and developmental time differed among regions (Florida, New Jersey, outside North America). Larval survivorship did not differ among regions nor among populations within regions, whereas size-specific fecundity varied among populations within regions but not among regions. Population crosses resulted in significant heterosis and outbreeding depression Of F1 hybrids but the results of crossing did not depend on the geographic distance separating parental populations in a consistent manner. Together, our results imply a role for local genetic drift affecting the life-history differentiation of Ae. albopictus populations. These conclusions corroborate previous studies of population structure based on neutral biochemical markers.
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