Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a newly invasive pest of several species of Ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied its development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°C treatment. Stage-specific duration times are presented for the other temperatures. Total duration of immature stages varied from 97.1 d at 15°C to 25.2 d at 30°C. Linear functions were used to describe development rates for eggs, instars and pupal stages. Total immature development also was modeled using a nonlinear Briere-1 function: r(T) = aT(T -T0) where r(T) is developmental rate at temperature (T), a = 0.0000146, T0 = 7.3120084 and TL = 45.9512202 (constant, lower developmental threshold, and lethal temperature, respectively). The thermal requirement for development from eggs to pupae was estimated to be 487.8 degree-days. S. simplex reproduction was highest at 27°C, where R0, GRR, T, r, λ, and DT were 23.114 ♀ / ♀, 24.25 ♀/♀, 31.413 d, 0.099 ♀ / ♀ /d, 1.105 ♀ / ♀ /d, and 6.93 d, respectively. The combined effect of temperature and female adult age on daily oviposition rate was modeled using the Enkegaard equation: eggmean = (p + qT) d exp(-wTd), where T is temperature. Parameter estimates were p = -30.21, q = 2.62, and w = 0.034. Duration of female adulthood was 8 d at 15°C, significantly longer than 2.5–4.2 d at the higher temperatures. At 25 and 27°C, lifetime fecundity per female averaged 37.9 and 46.2, respectively.
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Vol. 104 • No. 3