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1 March 2012 Cryptic Species of the Anastrepha fraterculus Complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): A Multivariate Approach for the Recognition of South American Morphotypes
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Although a large amount of data have been published in past years on the taxonomic status of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) species complex, there is still a need to know how many species this complex comprises, the distribution of each one, and their distinguishing features. In this study, we assessed the morphometric variability of 32 populations from the A. fraterculus complex, located in major biogeographical areas from the Neotropics. Multivariate techniques for analysis were applied to the measurements of 21 variables referring to the mesonotum, aculeus, and wing. For the first time, our results identified the presence of seven distinct morphotypes within this species complex. According to the biogeographical areas, populations occurring in the Mesoamerican dominion (Mexico, Guatemala, and Panama) were clustered within a single natural entity labeled as the “Mexican” morphotype; whereas in the northwestern South American dominion, samples fell into three distinct groups: the “Venezuelan” morphotype with a single population from the Caribbean lowlands of Venezuela, the “Andean” morphotype from the highlands of Venezuela and Colombia, and the third group or “Peruvian” morphotype comprised the samples from the Pacific coastal lowlands of Ecuador and Peru. Three additional groups were identified from the Chacoan and Paranaense sub-regions: the morphotype “Brazilian-1” was recognized as including the Argentinean samples with most pertaining to Brazil, and widely distributed in these biogeographical areas; the morphotype “Brazilian-2” was recognized as including two samples from the state of Sao Paulo (Ilha-Bela and São Sebastião); whereas the morphotype “Brazilian-3” included a single population from Botucatu (state of Sao Paulo). Based on data published by previous authors showing genetic and karyotypic differentiation, as well as reproductive isolation, we have concluded that such morphotypes indeed represent natural groups and distinct taxonomic entities.
© 2012 Entomological Society of America
Vicente Hernández-Ortiz, Andrea F. Bartolucci, Pedro Morales-Valles, Daniel Frías and Denise Selivon "Cryptic Species of the Anastrepha fraterculus Complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): A Multivariate Approach for the Recognition of South American Morphotypes," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 105(2), (1 March 2012).
Received: 5 July 2011; Accepted: 1 October 2011; Published: 1 March 2012

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