Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the most frequent and abundant mealybugs in Brazilian vineyards, where it causes direct and indirect damage to the vines. In this study, we investigated the effect of plant structures, cultivars, and vine rootstocks on the development, survival, and reproduction of D. brevipes under laboratory conditions. Leaves of the tablegrape cultivar’ ‘Itália’ (Vitis vinifera) and ‘Niágara Rosada’ (Vitis labrusca) and the vine roots of the rootstocks Paulsen 1103 (Vitis berlandieri × V. rupestris) and IAC 572 (Vitis caribaea × 101-14 Mgt) were used as host plants. D. brevipes developed on different vegetative structures, cultivars, and vine rootstocks. D. brevipes showed the shortest developmental period and highest survival and fecundity rates on leaves of cultivar Itália. Survival on leaves was significantly higher than on roots. Roots of IAC 572 were unsuitable for D. brevipes development, resulting in nonreproductive females. The mealybugs’ longevity on leaves and vine roots was similar. Higher intrinsic and finite rates of increase and net reproductive rate were observed when mealybugs developed on Itália leaves. We concluded that the host plant affects the development and survival of D. brevipes and that the choice of the most appropriate cultivar or vine rootstock can help to reduce pest infestation, and is therefore an additional component to be included in the integrated pest management of grapes.