Reflex bleeding in New World froghoppers is described in detail for the first time. Prosapia sp. n. adults exude hemolymph from rupture lines in pretarsal pads when attacked by predators. After an assault, food access permitted replenishment of exudate volume within 6 h. A survey of New World Cercopoidea (53 species) demonstrated the behavior to be synapomorphic in the predominantly aposematic family Cercopidae, but not present in the largely cryptic Aphrophoridae and Clastopteridae. A comparative study of four species [ Iphirhina quota (Distant), Mahanarva costaricensis (Distant), P. plagiata (Distant), and Prosapia sp. n.] showed that total volume of exudate, volume per weight, and response to general versus localized assaults varied among sexes, species, and habitats. Laboratory and field bioassays failed to demonstrate mechanical or chemical deterrency. In tandem with warning odors, however, conspicuousness coloration and reflexive discharge of blood form an elaborate warning signal in cercopid froghoppers, probably functioning as a startle stimulus that permits escape by jumping.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 93 • No. 5