The Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), has become an increasingly damaging pest in greenhouse ornamental production. Current management tactics of P. madeirensis require a regular chemical application schedule targeting the immature stages. Knowledge of the life cycle of P. madeirensis is important to the success of its management program. We investigated the effects of constant temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40°C) on the development, survival, and reproduction of P. madeirensis on chrysanthemum (Dendrathema x grandiflora Kitam.). We failed to establish colonies at 30–40°C. Between 15 and 25°C, the duration of development of all developmental stages were shortened at higher temperatures. The total duration of development of female mealybugs was ≈30 d at 25°C, 46 d at 20°C, and 66 d at 15°C. Developmental time of males was 3–9 d longer than females. Survival rates of individual instars ranged between 88 and 100% and were not influenced by temperature. Overall, >75% of eggs completed development to adulthood. Female mealybugs made up 50% of the adult populations in all temperature treatments. Adult longevity at 25°C was ≈3 and 20 d for males and ovipositing females, respectively. Females at 20°C produced the highest number of eggs (491 ± 38 eggs/female).
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Vol. 96 • No. 4