Two species of Discomyza Meigen occur in the New World, one, D. u-signata Cresson, naturally and the other, D. maculipennis (Wiedemann), apparently as an introduction. These species are revised and their malacophagous breeding habits are documented. The species treatments include the first detailed descriptions and illustrations of structures from the male terminalia, lectotype designations for Notiphila maculipennis Wiedemann and its New World synonym (D. balioptera Loew), as well as phylogenetic and biogeographic information, including maps. Although congeners, these two species are apparently not closely related, and their occurrence in the New World is independent of each other. D. maculipennis has a biogeographic connection with the Orient, and D. u-signata is linked with a group of Afrotropical species, D. eritrea Cresson specifically.
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