A taxonomic revision of Bouchea Cham. (Duranteae, Verbenaceae) is presented, updating the last formal revision of the genus by Moldenke from 1940, with a more comprehensive and profound study of herbarium material. The analyses of the morphological features support the recognition of 13 Bouchea species. A new combination is proposed for Stachytarpheta bifurca Benth. (≡ B. bifurca (Benth.) P. Moroni & N. O'Leary), and B. boyacana Moldenke var. glabrata Moldenke is elevated to the species rank. Eight taxa are here synonymized: B. inopinata Moldenke (= B. agrestis Schauer), B. prismatica (L.) Kuntze var. brevirostra Grenzeb. (= B. bifurca), B. beckii Moldenke (= B. boliviana (Kuntze) Moldenke), B. flabelliformis M. E. Jones (= B. dissecta S. Watson), B. prismatica var. laciniata Grenzeb. (= B. dissecta), S. kingii Moldenke (= B. nelsonii Grenzeb.), B. boyacana Moldenke (= B. prismatica), and B. spathulata Torr. var. longiflora Moldenke (= B. spathulata). Lectotypes are designated for the names B. incrassata Lange (second-step), B. rusbyi Moldenke (second-step), and S. laxiflora Turcz. Furthermore, B. boliviana is reported for the first time growing in Argentina, B. notabilis Moldenke in Ecuador, and B. rusbyi in Brazil and Peru.
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