The new outline of relationships in basal branches of the family Compositae Giseke confirms that the sister group to the tribe Cardueae Cass. are not Mutisieae Cass., but rather a group of African genera now classified as the tribe Tarchonantheae Kostel. This change implies that the monophyly of the Cardueae must be reassessed on a molecular basis. Moreover, new collections in recent years allow us to extend our sampling to 70 of the 74 genera of the tribe. We performed a new molecular study of the tribe using one nuclear region (ITS) and two chloroplastic markers (trnL-trnF and matK) in addition to a more appropriate outgroup. Our results confirm that the Cardueae is a natural group but indicate some changes in subtribal delineation: the subtribe Cardopatiinae Less. is recognized and some genera are moved to other subtribes (Myopordon Boiss., Nikitinia Iljin, Syreitschikovia Pavlov, and the Xeranthemum L. group). A recapitulation of a number of interesting questions that remain unresolved in the classification of some large genera is presented.
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Vol. 93 • No. 1