Translator Disclaimer
1 November 2007 Accumulation Rates over the Past 500 Years Recorded in Ice Cores from the Northern and Southern Tibetan Plateau, China
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Based on the Guliya, Dunde, and Dasuopu ice cores and direct observations, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations in precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau over the past 500 yr. The variations in accumulation rates showed significant periodicities of 12.7, 7.6, 6.2, 5.4, 4.4, and 2.1 yr in the Guliya ice core, 9.5, 6.8, 5.7, and 2.1 yr in the Dunde ice core, and 12.3, 7.5, 6.3, 5.3, and 2.4 yr in the Dasuopu ice core. The periodicities displayed in these three ice core records are similar and correspond to the periodicities of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, the Southern Oscillation, the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the sunspot cycle. However, the accumulation rate from the Guliya and Dunde ice cores exhibited a generally decreasing trend, while the records from the Dasuopu ice core show a generally increasing trend over the entire period of interest. Our study also indicates that there is a strong negative correlation between the accumulation rates in the ice cores from the northern and southern Tibetan Plateau, especially on climatological (multidecadal or longer) time-scales. Modern meteorological observation data suggest that a dividing line between the northern and southern Tibetan Plateau with respect to variations in precipitation is located at ∼32–33°N. This dividing line coincides with other atmospheric, geographical, geological, and geophysical discontinuities. This suggests that interactions among these phenomena might help to understand the spatial patterns of climate over the Tibetan Plateau.

Introduction

The worldwide retreat of many glaciers over the past few decades is regarded as an unambiguous sign of global warming (Dyurgerov and Meier, 2000; Oerlemans, 2005). However, it was found that many coastal glaciers in Norway began to advance in the 1990s, which was attributed to an increased snowfall in winters (Andreassen et al., 2005; Fealy and Sweeney, 2005). This suggests that the effect of precipitation, in addition to that of air temperature, on glacier mass balance should be considered when we consider glaciers to be indictors of climate change. Recent studies on the variations of glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau show that most glaciers have shrunk, but glaciers in some areas on the northern Tibetan Plateau have expanded over the past three decades (Liu et al., 2004; Shangguan et al., 2004). In order to explain this phenomenon, we need to investigate the characteristics of climate change in different areas of the Tibetan Plateau. We have found that over the past century the warm season air temperature variations over the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau have been different from that in the northern Tibetan Plateau (Wang et al., 2003; Wang, 2006). The spatial and temporal variations in precipitation are usually much more complicated than in air temperature, and precipitation variations play an important role in environmental changes (especially in arid and semiarid regions). The mean annual precipitation is less than 400 mm in most parts of the Tibetan Plateau except in the southeast part and in high mountains, and less than 200 mm in large parts of the northern Plateau (Ye and Gao, 1979). This dry climate results in desert formation in some areas of the Plateau, especially in the north. It is estimated that about 14% of the total area of the Tibetan Plateau is occupied by land that has experienced desertification, and the region is suffering from the intensification of this process (Li et al., 2001, 2004). Thus, investigation of the variations in precipitation can also help us to understand the causes of environmental changes in the Tibetan Plateau. In this paper, we try to study the spatial and temporal variations in precipitation across the Tibetan Plateau using ice core records, observation data and NCEP/NCAR (the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data.

Data and Methods

The high elevation of the Tibetan Plateau is instrumental in the development of its many glaciers, the presence of which provides us an opportunity to study suites of ice cores from across the Plateau. From these cores we can reconstruct records of past climatic and environmental changes which can help offset the scarcity of meteorological data.

Since the 1980s, we have drilled cores from the Dunde (38°06′N, 96°24.5′E, 5325 m a.s.l.), Guliya (35°17′N, 81°29′E, 6200 m a.s.l.), and Dasuopu (28°22.58′N, 85°42.94′E, 7000 m a.s.l.) ice caps (Fig. 1). These ice cores are in the Qilian Mountains, the western Kunlun Mountains and the Himalayan Mountains, respectively. Dunde and Guliya are located in the north, where climate is influenced mainly by the westerlies, while Dasuopu is in the Himalayas to the south, which is influenced by the Indian Monsoon in summertime and the southern branch of the westerlies in the winter. By using the seasonal characteristics of δ18O and dust, the upper parts of these ice cores were dated, and the thicknesses of annual layers were obtained. Considering the thinning of annual layers with depth by ice deformation, we reconstructed the annual accumulation rates recorded in these ice cores using a two-parameter steady state flow model that takes into account the rapid thinning of layers near a glacier's flow divide (Bolzan, 1985; Reeh, 1988; Thompson et al., 1989, 1990, 1995, 1997, 2000; Yao and Thompson, 1992; Yao et al., 1997; Yang, 1989; Davis et al., 2005).

Figure 1.

Locations of the Dunde, Guliya, and Dasuopu ice cores (black squares) and the selected meteorological stations (black circles) across the Tibetan Plateau.

i1523-0430-39-4-671-f01.gif

Sublimation and/or melting can reduce the ice accumulation rate; in fact some studies indicate that sublimation might be more vigorous on tropical glaciers than on polar glaciers (King et al., 2001; Stichler et al., 2001; Wagnon et al., 2003; Mölg and Hardy, 2004; Ginot et al., 2006). Unfortunately, direct knowledge of the extent of sublimation on Tibetan Plateau glaciers is lacking. However, a recent study showed that sublimation on snow cover in the non-mountainous areas of the central Tibetan Plateau was remarkable in wintertime (Ueno et al., 2007). In order to determine whether ice core accumulation rates could be regarded as proxies of precipitation on the Plateau, we can compare them with precipitation records from nearby meteorological stations. In the case of Guliya, we could not compare the ice-core record with direct instrumental measurements because there is a lack of meteorological stations within acceptable proximity. However, it has been found that there is a strong correlation between the Dasuopu accumulation-rate record and monsoon rainfall in north-central and northeast India (Duan et al., 2004; Davis et al., 2005). Figure 2 shows the similarities between the accumulation-rate record from the Dunde ice core since 1950 and the precipitation records from the nearby Delingha (37°22′N, 97°22′E, 2982 m a.s.l.) and Dulan (36°18′N, 98°06′E, 3192 m a.s.l.) stations. The correlation coefficients between the Dunde record and the Delingha and Dulan records are 0.421 and 0.552, respectively, of which the later one is significant at 10% level. Moreover, Figure 2 also illustrates that the annual accumulation rate at the high-altitude drilling site was larger than the annual precipitation at the lower elevations, which is consistent with general observations that precipitation is usually larger at high elevations than at low elevations in a mountainous regions. All these suggest that records of accumulation rates from the Tibetan ice cores are acceptable proxies for precipitation histories.

Figure 2.

Comparison of the records of accumulation rates from the Dunde ice core (a) from 1950 to 1987 with precipitation variations at the Dulan (b) and Delingha (c) meteorological stations from 1955 to 2000.

i1523-0430-39-4-671-f02.gif

Figure 3a, 3b, and 3c show the reconstructed accumulation records since A.D. 1500 from the Dunde, Guliya, and Dasuopu ice caps, respectively. These provide the basic data for us to investigate the characteristics of the variations in precipitation in different climate regions across the Tibetan Plateau over centennial time scales. In order to detect whether there were pervasive influences of atmospheric phenomena (such as the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, the Southern Oscillation, and the North Atlantic Oscillation) on the records of these accumulation rates, we used power spectral method (Huang, 2000) to analyze the possible signals of the phenomena in the variations in the accumulation rates. In view of the paucity of meteorological stations within western Tibetan Plateau, we will focus our attention on the variations in precipitation over the northern and southern regions. Therefore, the records from an array of meteorological stations (see Fig. 1) from north to south were selected. We performed correlation analyses (Huang, 2000) on both the instrumental data and the ice-core records in order to ascertain the spatial and temporal characteristics of the variations in precipitation. Moreover, we used the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data to further verify the results obtained from ice-core records and observation data.

Figure 3.

Yearly variations of the accumulation rates recorded since 1500 A.D. in the Dasuopu (a), Guliya (b), and Dunde (c) ice cores over the past 500 yr. The dashed lines represent their first order linear trends.

i1523-0430-39-4-671-f03.gif

Results and Discussion

Figure 4a, 4b, and 4c shows the results of the spectral analyses performed on the time series of accumulation rates from the Dasuopu, Guliya, and Dunde ice cores, respectively over the past 500 yr. Significant periodicities of 12.3, 7.5, 6.3, 5.3, and 2.4 yr occur in the Dasuopu ice core, while periodicities of 12.7, 7.6, 6.2, 5.4, 4.4, and 2.1 yr occur in the Guliya core, and 9.5, 6.8, 5.7, and 2.1 yr in the Dunde core. The periodicities displayed in the three ice-core records are similar, and correspond to those of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (about 2.3 yr; Angell and Korshover, 1964), the Southern Oscillation (3 to 7 yr; Ropelewski and Jones, 1987), the North Atlantic Oscillation (about 7.6 yr; Rogers, 1984), and the sunspot cycle. Some studies also found signals of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, Southern Oscillation, and the North Atlantic Oscillation in precipitation variations in southern and eastern Tibetan Plateau (Zhu and Zhi, 1991; Liu and Hou, 1999; Yang et al., 2000; Zhou et al., 2001). These imply that atmospheric oscillations might influence precipitation across the whole Tibetan Plateau. In fact, although the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, the Southern Oscillation, and the North Atlantic Oscillation are regional phenomena, they affect global climate (including temperature and precipitation) by modulating atmospheric circulation (Lau and Sheu, 1988; Yulaeva and Wallace, 1994; Brázdil and Zolotokrylin, 1995; Hurrell, 1995; Baldwin et al., 2001).

Figure 4.

Spectral analyses of the accumulation-rate records in the Dasuopu (a), Guliya (b), and Dunde (c) ice cores over the past 500 yr. The dashed lines represent the 5% significance level (α = 0.05).

i1523-0430-39-4-671-f04.gif

We note that the accumulation-rate records from the Guliya and Dunde ice cores exhibit a generally decreasing trend while the Dasuopu record shows an increasing trend over the entire study period (see Fig. 3). This phenomenon suggests that the secular trend in precipitation in the northern Tibetan Plateau is opposite to that in the south. In order to better recognize the patterns in variations of accumulation rates in these three ice cores, we calculated their cumulative anomalies (Fig. 5). Usually several steps should be taken for calculating a cumulative anomaly series. First, a long-term mean value must be computed for a time series data; then, the anomaly time series can be obtained by calculation of the deviations of individual values from the long-term mean; and finally, the cumulative anomaly series can be obtained by summing the anomalies through time. The epochs during which slopes of the cumulative anomalies increase/decrease are the epochs when most anomalies are positive/negative. Therefore, Figure 5a indicates that during the epoch from A.D. 1503 to 1771 the Guliya ice cap experienced high accumulation rates, while A.D. 1771 to 1991 was a period of low accumulation rates. Figure 5b illustrates that in the Dunde high accumulation rates occurred from A.D. 1698 to 1799 and from A.D. 1967 to 1986, and low rates occurred from A.D. 1799 to 1967. Finally, Figure 5c shows that low accumulation rates occurred in the Dasuopu record from A.D. 1500 to 1805 and from A.D. 1953 to 1996, and high accumulation rates from A.D. 1805 to 1953. Thus Figure 5 suggests that the variations in accumulation rates in the northern Tibetan Plateau have generally been opposite from that in the southern Tibetan Plateau over the last 500 yr.

Figure 5.

Cumulative accumulation rate anomalies in the Guliya (a), Dunde (b), and Dasuopu (c) ice cores since A.D. 1500.

i1523-0430-39-4-671-f05.gif

Figure 6 shows the correlation coefficients between the accumulation rate time series from the three ice cores, which were calculated for various running averages. Recently, much attention has been paid on the spatial patterns of climate variability on the different time scales. If we take the years by which the running averages were computed as a time scale of interest, it can be seen from the Figure 6 that, on climatological (multidecadal or longer) time-scales the following pattern emerges. Accumulation rates in the Dasuopu ice core were significantly and negatively correlated with those in the Guliya and Dunde ice cores, and the record from the Guliya ice core was significantly and positively related with that from the Dunde ice core. These further illustrate that the variations in accumulation rates in the northern Tibetan Plateau were opposite from that in the southern Tibetan Plateau on climatological time-scales.

Figure 6.

Correlation coefficients between the accumulation rates in the Guliya, Dunde, and Dasuopu ice cores on different time-scales. (a) Guliya vs Dasuopu; (b) Dunde vs Dasuopu; and (c) Guliya vs Dunde. The dashed lines represent the α significance level.

i1523-0430-39-4-671-f06.gif

We attempted to determine the location of the dividing line separating the precipitation climatology between the northern and southern Tibetan Plateau. In order to pursue this, we used the instrumental precipitation data from a north-south transect of meteorological stations (see Fig. 1) over the past four decades (Fig. 7). The sign of the correlation coefficient changes around Amdo meteorological station (32°21′N, 91°06′E), which is just located to the south of the Tanggula Mountains. This suggests that a climatological division between the northern and southern Tibetan Plateau, with respect to precipitation, is located ∼32–33°N.

Figure 7.

Correlation coefficients between annual precipitation from Tingri, the southernmost meteorological station, and each of the meteorological stations along the north-south transect shown in Figure 1.

i1523-0430-39-4-671-f07.gif

The scarcity and short-term nature of the meteorological records from the Tibetan Plateau inhibit our ability to investigate the spatial variations in precipitation over this whole region. These shortcomings can be compensated for in part by utilizing the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set (available at  http://www.cdc.noaa.gov). Thus, we can verify whether there are opposite trends in precipitation over the southern and northern Tibetan Plateau on decadal time-scales. Figure 8a and 8b represents the differences between decadal means (1980s minus 1970s and 1990s minus 1980s, respectively) of surface precipitation rates, and Figure 8c and 8d shows similar differences in surface precipitable water (the water vapor content of a vertical column, which extends from the ground to the top of the atmosphere). These patterns clearly indicate that the variations in both surface precipitation rate and surface precipitable water in the southern Tibetan Plateau were opposite to that in the northern Plateau, and the dividing line was situated ∼33°N. We calculate precipitation trend coefficients (defined as the correlation coefficient between the precipitation series and corresponding sequence of years) at each grid point in the area from 27.5°N to 40.5°N and from 77.0°E to 105.5°E, which encompasses the Tibetan Plateau, using University of Delaware air temperature and precipitation data (available at  http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/cdc/data.UDel_AirT_Precip.html). The data are of high resolution (0.5 degree latitude × 0.5 degree longitude) and long duration (1950 to 1999). The spatial distribution of the precipitation trend coefficients illustrate that the precipitation trend coefficients are positive in most parts of the north while negative in most of the south (Fig. 9), which implies that precipitation generally increased in the north while decreasing in the south from 1950 to 1999. These further substantiate the above results derived from the ice core records and instrumental data.

Figure 8.

Contour maps illustrating the differences between the decadal means of surface precipitation rate (a, b) and surface precipitable water (c, d). All the data are available at  http://www.cdc.noaa.gov. Panels a and c represent the patterns resulting from subtracting the 1970s means from 1980s means and panels b and d show the patterns resulting from subtracting the 1980s means from 1990s means. The contour interval for panels a and b is 0.2 mm d−1, and the contour interval for panels c and d is 0.15 kg m−2.

i1523-0430-39-4-671-f08.gif

Figure 9.

Spatial distribution of the precipitation trend coefficients during the period from 1950 to 1999.

i1523-0430-39-4-671-f09.jpg

It is not clear why the variations in precipitation in the northern Plateau region are opposite from those in the south. But it is very interesting that the location of the dividing line between them coincides with the location where many atmospheric, geographical, geological, and geophysical phenomena intersect. Examples of these are: the boundary between variations in the warm season air temperatures on decadal time-scales over the past century (Wang, 2006); the average position of the shear line activity (Qiao and Zhang, 1994); the northern limit of the influence of the Indian Monsoon (Qiao and Zhang, 1994); the southern limit of the continuous permafrost region (Zhou et al., 2000); the location of the Lake Bangong-Nu Jiang suture zone (Kong et al., 1996); the dividing line between the young (south side) and the old (north side) terranes (Kong et al., 1996); and the dividing line between the high (south side) and the low (north side) geothermal heat fluxes (Shen et al., 1992). These suggest that an important dividing line of climate, environment, and geophysics occurs across the Tibetan Plateau at ∼32–33°N.

Conclusions

Precipitation variations, like temperature variations, can exert a strong influence on environmental changes. The environmental conditions in different regions of the Tibetan Plateau are distinctly different. Examining the spatial and temporal variations in precipitation over the Plateau can help us to better understand the past environmental changes in this high land. Through analyses of the records of accumulation rates from the Dasuopu, Guliya, and Dunde ice cores and of recent meteorological data, we find that over the past 500 yr precipitation in the largely dry northern Tibetan Plateau shows a generally decreasing trend, which is opposite to the precipitation trend in the south. Although the site of the Guliya ice core is far from that of the Dunde ice core, the accumulation rate records of these sites are significantly correlated on climatological (multidecadal) time-scales, which hints that the variations in precipitation in the northern Tibetan Plateau have been consistent over a large area. A climatological dividing line between the northern and southern Tibetan Plateau with respect to variations in precipitation appears to be located at ∼32–33°N.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the China Meteorological Administration for providing us with instrumental data. We thank the reviewers and Prof. S. P. Anderson for their comments and suggestions. UDel_AirT_Precip data provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. from their web site at  http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/. This research work is supported by the Centurial Program (2004401) and International Partnership Project (CXTD-Z2005-2) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Basic Research Program of China (2005CB422003), the Chinese NSF (40525001, 40121101), and the Innovation Research Project (KZCX3-SW-339-3) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References Cited

1.

L. M. Andreassen, H. Elvehøy, B. Kjøllmoen, R. V. Engeset, and N. Haakensen . 2005. Glacier mass-balance and length variation in Norway. Annals of Glaciology 42:317–325. Google Scholar

2.

J. K. Angell and J. Korshover . 1964. Quasi-biennial variations in temperature, total ozone, and tropopause height. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 21:479–492. Google Scholar

3.

M. P. Baldwin, L. J. Gray, T. J. Dunkerton, K. Hamilton, P. H. Haynes, W. J. Randel, J. R. Holton, M. J. Alexander, I. Hirota, T. Horinouchi, D. B. A. Jones, J. S. Kinnersley, C. Marquardt, K. Sato, and M. Takahashi . 2001. The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Reviews of Geophysics 39:179–229. Google Scholar

4.

J. F. Bolzan 1985. Ice flow at the Dome C ice divide based on a deep temperature profile. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres) 90:8111–8124. Google Scholar

5.

R. Brázdil and A. N. Zolotokrylin . 1995. The QBO signal in monthly precipitation fields over Europe. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 51:3–12. Google Scholar

6.

M. E. Davis, L. G. Thompson, T. Yao, and N. Wang . 2005. Forcing of the Asian monsoon on the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from high-resolution ice core and tropical coral records. Journal of Geophysical Research 110.D04101doi: 10.129/2004JD004933. Google Scholar

7.

K. Duan, T. Yao, and L. G. Thompson . 2004. Low-frequency of southern Asian monsoon variability suing a 295-year record from the Dasuopu ice core in the central Himalayas. Geophysical Research Letters 31.L16209doi: 10.1029/2004GL020015. Google Scholar

8.

M. B. Dyurgerov and M. F. Meier . 2000. Twentieth century climate change: evidence from small glaciers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97:1406–1411. Google Scholar

9.

R. Fealy and J. Sweeney . 2005. Detection of a possible change point in atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic and its effect on Scandinavian glacier mass balance. International Journal of Climatology 25:1819–1833. Google Scholar

10.

P. Ginot, C. Kull, U. Schotterer, M. Schwikowski, and H. W. Gäggeler . 2006. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes). Climate of the Past 2:21–30. Google Scholar

11.

J. Huang 2000. Statistic Analysis and Forecast Methods in Meteorology Beijing Meteorological Press. (In Chinese.). Google Scholar

12.

J. W. Hurrell 1995. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation. Science 269:676–679. Google Scholar

13.

J. C. King, P. S. Anderson, and G. W. Mann . 2001. The seasonal cycle of sublimation at Halley, Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology 47:1–8. Google Scholar

14.

X. Kong, Q. Wang, and S. Xiong . 1996. Comprehensive geophysics and lithospheric structure in the western Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. Science in China Series D-Earth Sciences 39:348–358. Google Scholar

15.

K. M. Lau and P. J. Sheu . 1988. Annual cycle, QBO and Southern Oscillation in global precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 93:10975–10988. Google Scholar

16.

S. Li, Y. Dong, G. Dong, P. Yang, and C. Zang . 2001. Regionalization of land desertification on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Journal of Desert Research 21:418–427. (In Chinese with English abstract.). Google Scholar

17.

S. Li, P. Yang, S. Gao, H. Chen, and F. Yao . 2004. Dynamic changes and developmental trends of the land desertification in Tibetan Plateau over the past 10 years. Advance in Earth Sciences 19:63–70. (In Chinese with English abstract.). Google Scholar

18.

S. Liu, D. Shangguan, Y. Ding, H. Han, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Xie, L. Ding, and G. Li . 2004. Variation of glaciers studied on the basis of RS and GIS: A reassessment of the changes of the Xinqingfeng and Malan ice caps in the Northern Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Glaciology Geocryology 26:244–252. (In Chinese with English abstract). Google Scholar

19.

X. Liu and P. Hou . 1999. Variation of summer rainfall over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its association with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Acta Meterologica Sinica 57:561–570. (In Chinese with English abstract.). Google Scholar

20.

T. Mölg and D. R. Hardy . 2004. Ablation and associated energy balance of a horizontal glacier surface on Kilimanjaro. Journal of Geophysical Research 109.D16104doi:10.1029/2003JD004338. Google Scholar

21.

J. Oerlemans 2005. Extracting a climate signal from 169 glacier records. Science 308:675–677. Google Scholar

22.

Q. Qiao and Y. Zhang . 1994. Weather over the Tibetan Plateau Beijing China Meteorological Press. (In Chinese.). Google Scholar

23.

N. Reeh 1988. A flow-line model for calculating the surface profile and the velocity, strain-rate, and stress fields in an ice sheet. Journal of Glaciology 34:46–54. Google Scholar

24.

J. C. Rogers 1984. The association between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere. Monthly Weather Review 112:1999–2015. Google Scholar

25.

C. F. Ropelewski and P. D. Jones . 1987. An extension of the Tahiti-Darwin Southern Oscillation Index. Monthly Weather Review 115:2161–2165. Google Scholar

26.

D. Shangguan, S. Liu, Y. Ding, and L. Ding . 2004. Monitoring results of glacier changes in China Karakorum and Muztag Ata–Konggur Mountains by remote sensing. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 26:374–375. (In Chinese.). Google Scholar

27.

X. Shen, W. Zhang, S. Yang, and Y. Guan . 1992. Heat flow and tectono-thermal evolution of terranes of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Beijing Geological Publishing House. Google Scholar

28.

W. Stichler, U. Schotterer, K. Fröhlich, P. Ginot, C. Kull, H. W. Gäggeler, and B. Pouyaud . 2001. The influence of sublimation on stable isotopes records from high altitude glaciers in the tropical Andes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 106:22613–22621. Google Scholar

29.

L. G. Thompson, E. Mosley-Thompson, M. E. Davis, J. F. Bolzan, J. Dai, L. Klein, T. Yao, X. Wu, Z. Xie, and N. Gundestrup . 1989. Holocene-Late Pleistocene climatic ice core records from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Science 246:474–477. Google Scholar

30.

L. G. Thompson, E. Mosley-Thompson, M. E. Davis, J. F. Bolzan, J. Dai, L. Klein, N. Gundestrup, T. Yao, X. Wu, and Z. Xie . 1990. Glacial stage ice-core records from the subtropical Dunde Ice Cap, China. Annals of Glaciology 14:288–297. Google Scholar

31.

L. G. Thompson, E. Mosley-Thompson, M. E. Davis, P. N. Lin, J. Dai, and J. F. Bolzan . 1995. A 1000 year climate ice-core record from the Guliya ice cap, China: its relationship to global climate variability. Annals of Glaciology 21:175–181. Google Scholar

32.

L. G. Thompson, T. Yao, M. E. Davis, K. A. Henderson, E. Mosley-Thompson, P-N. Lin, J. Beer, H-A. Synal, J. Cole-Dai, and J. F. Bolzan . 1997. Tropical climate instability: the last glacial cycle from a Qinghai-Tibetan ice core. Science 276:1821–1825. Google Scholar

33.

L. G. Thompson, T. Yao, E. Mosley-Thompson, M. E. Davis, K. A. Henderson, and P-N. Lin . 2000. A high-resolution millennial record of the south Asian monsoon from Himalayan ice cores. Science 289:1916–1919. Google Scholar

34.

K. Ueno, K. Tanaka, H. Tsutsui, and M. Li . 2007. Snow cover conditions in the Tibetan Plateau observed during winter of 2003/2004. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 39:152–164. Google Scholar

35.

P. Wagnon, J-E. Sicart, E. Berthier, and J-P. Chazarin . 2003. Wintertime high-altitude surface energy balance of a Bolivian glacier, Illimani, 6340 m above sea level. Journal of Geophysical Research 408:D64177. doi:10.1029/2002JD002088. Google Scholar

36.

N. Wang 2006. Dividing line of the difference in the variations of the warm season air temperatures on the decadal time scale in the northern and southern Tibetan Plateau. Quaternary Sciences 26:165–172. (In Chinese with English abstract.). Google Scholar

37.

N. Wang, T. Yao, J. Pu, Y. Zhang, W. Sun, and Y. Wang . 2003. Variations in air temperature during the last 100 years revealed by δ18O in the Malan ice core from the Tibetan Plateau. Chinese Science Bulletin 48:2134–2138. Google Scholar

38.

M. Yang, T. Yao, Y. He, and L. G. Thompson . 2000. ENSO events recorded in the Guliya ice core. Climatic Change 2000, 47:401–409. Google Scholar

39.

Q. Yang 1989. Microparticle Analysis and Application for Dunde ice cap, Qilian Mountains 1–51. (MS thesis, in Chinese with English abstract.). Google Scholar

40.

T. Yao and L. G. Thompson . 1992. Trends and features of climatic changes in the past 5000 years recorded by the Dunde ice core. Annals of Glaciology 16:21–24. Google Scholar

41.

T. Yao, L. G. Thompson, D. Qin, L. Tian, K. Jiao, Z. Yang, and C. Xie . 1997. Variations in temperature and preipitation in the past 2000 years on the Xizang (Tibet) Plateau: Guliya ice core record. Science in China Series D-Earth Sciences 39:425–433. Google Scholar

42.

D. Ye and Y. Gao . 1979. Meteorology in the Tibetan Plateau Beijing Science Press. (In Chinese.). Google Scholar

43.

E. Yulaeva and J. M. Wallace . 1994. The signature of ENSO in global temperature and precipitation fields derived from the microwave sounding unit. Journal of Climate 7:1719–1736. Google Scholar

44.

S. Zhou, L. Jia, and J. Du . 2001. Response of the summer precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau to ENSO events. Journal of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology 24:570–575. (In Chinese with English abstract.). Google Scholar

45.

Y. Zhou, G. Qiu, D. Guo, G. Chen, and S. Li . 2000. Geocryology in China Beijing Science in China Press. (In Chinese.). Google Scholar

46.

Q. Zhu and X. Zhi . 1991. Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in rainfall over China. Journal of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology 14:261–268. (In Chinese with English abstract.). Google Scholar
Ninglian Wang, Xi Jiang, Lonnie G. Thompson, and Mary E. Davis "Accumulation Rates over the Past 500 Years Recorded in Ice Cores from the Northern and Southern Tibetan Plateau, China," Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 39(4), 671-677, (1 November 2007). https://doi.org/10.1657/1523-0430(07-507)[WANG]2.0.CO;2
Accepted: 1 July 2007; Published: 1 November 2007
JOURNAL ARTICLE
7 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
Back to Top