We examined pollen of 19 genera of Hemerocallidaceae by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and one genus (Dianella) by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Pollen was generally small in size, with a rounded triangular outline when hydrated, and a characteristic three-armed aperture, a distal trichotomosulcus. The pollen surface was finely sculptured and the exine was thin. Microreticulate pollen is a potential synapomorphy for several species of the ‘crown phormioid’ subclade recognised in molecular analyses. Perforate and fossulate pollen supports a relationship between several species of Dianella. Microrugulate pollen is more frequent in the johnsonioids than in the phormioids. Hemerocallis is distinguished by elongated monosulcate pollen, a relatively thick exine with a pronounced reticulate surface, and large globules of attached pollenkitt. We hypothesise that Hemerocallidaceae are ancestrally buzz-pollinated, and their pollen morphology is an adaptation to this pollination type. A reversal to butterfly or moth pollination occurred in Hemerocallis, with associated changes in pollen morphology.
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