Cutaneous fowlpox occurring in vaccinated layer hens was investigated pathologically and microbiologically. Anorexia, decrease of egg production, increased mortality, yellow scabs on faces, and alopecia of feathered skins with yellow scabs were observed in affected hens. Histologically, proliferative and necrotic dermatitis with eosinophilic ring-shaped cytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) and clumps of gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus hyicus) were noted in the affected birds. Fowlpox lesions were primarily observed in the feathered skins. Proliferation of feather follicle epidermal cells, with cytoplasmic inclusions and degeneration of the feather, and bacterial clumps in the feather follicles were noted in the affected skins. Ultrastructurally, characteristic fowlpox viral particles were observed in the cytoplasmic inclusions of hyperplastic epidermal cells. Amyloid deposition was observed in the Disse space of the liver, splenic sinus, and lamina propria of the bronchiolar, bronchial, and tracheal areas. Amyloidosis could be one factor inducing the fowlpox infection in vaccinated chickens.
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