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1 September 2008 Survey of Endogenous Virus and TVB* Receptor Status of Commercial Chicken Stocks Supplying Specific-Pathogen-Free Eggs
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Endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALVE) and the ALVE receptor (TVB*S1) status of six commercial chicken lines supplying specific-pathogen-free eggs were analyzed. All commercial chicken lines are certified free of the avian leukosis virus (ALV) by screening for expression of the p27 protein using the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The commercial chicken lines A, E, and F contained replication competent ALVE inserts. Line A was fixed for ALVE21, and lines E and F were segregating for ALVE10. In addition, ALVE1 was detected in all the chicken lines. Chicken lines B, D, and F were essentially fixed for the TVB*S1 allele that confers susceptibility to ALVE, whereas lines A, C, B, and E were resistant, containing either the TVB*S3 or TVB*R alleles. The results show that lines selected to be ALV p27 negative give rise to two different genotypes. One genotype lacks the TVB*S1 receptor for ALVE. Chicken lines with the TVB*S1 negative genotype can retain replication competent endogenous virus inserts such as ALVE2, 10, or 21 and still display the p27 negative phenotype. These replication competent ALVE viruses are phenotypically p27 negative in the absence of the TVB*S1 receptor because their chromosomal integration sites restrict transcription and subsequent production of the p27 protein and virus particles to levels below the detection limit. If the TVB*S1 receptor is present, the limited production of ALVE virus particles reinfects and integrates into more productive chromosomal locations in the cell. Increased production of infective virus particles and detectable levels of p27 follow this reinfection and integration into more active regions of the cells genome. The other genotype observed in the commercial lines retains the ALVE receptor (TVB*S1) but either lacks replication competent inserts or expresses the envelope encoded protein from defective inserts such as ALVE3 or ALVE6. In this phenotype, the env-coded glycoprotein encoded by the defective inserts binds to the TVB*S1 receptor and blocks the reinfection of the replication competent ALVE virus. This receptor interference stops reinfection and subsequent production of detectable virus particles and the p27 protein. Mixtures of different p27 negative phenotypes can result in the p27 positive phenotype and ALVE virus production. For example, mixtures of ALVE receptor positive (TVB*S1) but ALVE negative (p27 negative and envelope negative) chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) with fibroblasts that are receptor negative but ALVE positive could generate cells expressing high levels of p27 and ALVE virus. In this situation, the undetectable levels of ALVE virus from the receptor negative CEFs would infect and integrate into the receptor positive CEFs and produce detectable levels of ALVE virus. The implications of these findings for vaccine manufacturers and regulatory agencies are discussed.

Estudio sobre la presencia de virus endógenos y receptores para el virus de leucosis aviar (TVB*) en parvadas comerciales productoras de huevos libres de patógenos específicos.

Se analizó la presencia de virus endógenos de leucosis aviar y de receptores para virus endógenos de leucosis aviar (TVB*S1) en seis líneas comerciales productoras de huevos libres de patógenos específicos. Todas las líneas comerciales son certificadas como libres del virus de leucosis aviar utilizando la prueba estándar de inmunoensayo asociado a enzimas para la detección de la expresión de la proteína p27. Las líneas comerciales A, E y F contenían insertos de virus endógenos de leucosis aviar con capacidad de replicación. La línea A contenía el virus endógeno de leucosis aviar 21 de manera constitutiva y las líneas E y F segregaban el virus endógeno de leucosis aviar 10. Adicionalmente, el virus endógeno de leucosis aviar 1 se detectó en todas las lín

Henry Hunt, Aly Fadly, Robert Silva, and Huanmin Zhang "Survey of Endogenous Virus and TVB* Receptor Status of Commercial Chicken Stocks Supplying Specific-Pathogen-Free Eggs," Avian Diseases 52(3), 433-440, (1 September 2008).
Received: 30 November 2007; Accepted: 1 March 2008; Published: 1 September 2008

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