This article explores the economic and related institutional issues at macro and micro levels, in different production systems and in different countries that influence avian influenza (AI) management and control. It does this by examining three groups of stakeholders with different agendas and concerns. For the “international community,” the overriding driver has been and still is concern for human safety. This is reflected in the high level of contributions to emergency response programs, a strong focus on pandemic prevention and preparedness, and the pressure put on countries to develop prevention and control plans. For the most influential countries and companies in the global poultry sector, those that control the largest commercial poultry populations, trade growth and stability are major concerns. Private investment in biosecurity, reorganization of supply chains, and an increasing interest in compartments are all indications of a perceived need to secure the boundaries. Poor poultry-keeping households must focus on day-to-day livelihoods and food security, whereas small-scale commercial producers are driven by small margins and short credit cycles. Although these people operate a little differently, they have in common a necessity to focus on the short term and a limited willingness and ability to invest in their flocks. There is also very little information that we can provide either of them on financially viable ways to upgrade their enterprises. Noncompliance or partial compliance with AI regulations often makes good economic sense. Different highly pathogenic AI management and control measures are economically viable in different circumstances. The article discusses the positive and less-positive impacts created by each stakeholder perspective and the conflicts and trade-offs that can arise, and suggests some approaches for reconciling differences and thus improving AI control.
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Vol. 54 • No. s1