Events during the period extending from 2006 to 2009 have been overshadowed by the ongoing panzootic with H5N1 (highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza [HPNAI]), which has afflicted 63 countries and three continents (Africa, Asia, and Europe) during the review period. Two countries, Indonesia and Egypt, have formally declared the disease endemic to the World Organisation for Animal Health, while others have used a variety of approaches aimed at containment, control, and eradication. These approaches have achieved variable success, but in 2009 several countries that had previously declared themselves free of HPNAI became reinfected. In addition, the virus continued to be detected widely in wild bird populations, even in the absence of local poultry outbreaks. Other poultry outbreaks with HPNAI have been reported in South Africa (in ostriches with H5N2 in 2006) and the U.K. (in chickens with H7N7 in 2008). Also notable was the report of H5N2 HPNAI in wild bird populations in North Africa in 2007. Improved active surveillance systems and vigilance for notifiable avian influenza (NAI) in domestic poultry, especially in host groupings, in which clinical signs following infection may be inapparent (e.g., domestic waterfowl), have inevitably resulted in the detection and reporting of other activity. Low pathogenicity NAI H5 or H7 viruses were isolated/detected from poultry in Belgium (H5N2, 2008), Chinese Taipei (H5N2, 2008), Denmark (H5N2, 2006; H7N1, 2008), France (H5N2, 2007), Germany (H7N3, 2008), Italy (H7N7, 2006; H7N3, 2007–08), the Netherlands (H7N7, 2006), Portugal (H5N2, 2007; H5N3, 2007), the Republic of Korea (H7N8, 2007; H5N2, 2008), and the U.K. (H7N3, 2006; H7N2, 2007). In addition, there has also been significant activity with H6 and H9 viruses in poultry populations, especially in Asia.
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Vol. 54 • No. s1