Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV HA) induces protective immunity against HPAIV in chickens. However, the efficacy of rNDV vectors is hampered when chickens are pre-immune to NDV, and most commercial chickens are routinely vaccinated against NDV. We recently showed that avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2, 6, and 10 (APMV-2, APMV-6, and APMV-10), which belong to the same genus as NDV, have low cross-reactivity with anti-NDV antisera. Here, we used reverse genetics to generate recombinant APMV-2, APMV-6, and APMV-10 (rAPMV-2/HA, rAPMV-6/HA, and rAPMV-10/HA) that expressed an HA protein derived of subtype H5N1 HPAIV, A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004. Chickens pre-immunized against NDV (age, 7 wk) were vaccinated with rAPMV/HAs; 14 days after vaccination, chickens were challenged with a lethal dose of HPAIV. Immunization of chickens pre-immunized against NDV with rAPMV-2/HA, rAPMV-6/HA, or rAPMV-10/HA protected 50%, 50%, and 25%, respectively, in groups of chickens given an rAPMV/HA with 106 median embryo infectious dose (EID50) or 50%, 50%, and 90%, respectively, in those with 107 EID50; in contrast, rNDV/HA protected none of the chicken vaccinated with 106 EID50 and induced only partial protection even with 107 EID50. Therefore, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies did not hamper the efficacy of rAPMV-2/HA, rAPMV-6/HA, or rAPMV-10/HA. These results suggest that rAPMV-2, rAPMV-6, and rAPMV-10 are potential vaccine vectors, especially for commercial chickens, which are routinely vaccinated against NDV.
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Vol. 61 • No. 3