Little is known about the effect of electronic cigarette usage, although the number of people using the devices continues to increase. Here we examine the effect of e-liquid with different concentration levels of nicotine from an electronic cigarette on the immune profile of the northern leopard frog Rana pipiens. Using a Sigelei Mini 30W electronic cigarette, frogs were exposed to vapor for 10 minutes, 6 days a week, for 3 weeks. We hypothesized that e-liquid vapor would alter the leukocyte differentials and positively correlate with the nicotine concentration. Our results indicate mean lymphocyte percent decreased with both vapor exposures without nicotine (24.8 ± 0.0% in control vs. 6.0 ± 1.2%) and with nicotine (24.8 ± 0.0% in control vs. 5.8 ± 4.0%), whereas the mean neutrophil percent increased with vapor without nicotine (60.8 ± 0.0% in control vs. 89.4 ± 3.0%) and with nicotine (60.8 ± 0.0% in control vs. 90.3 ± 6.0%). There was a significant positive correlation between vapor exposure and total neutrophil differentials (r = 0.954, p < 0.01). However, there was no positive correlation between the nicotine concentration and lymphocyte differentials (r = 0.83; p > 0.05). Monocyte, basophil, and eosinophil percentages also decreased in frogs that were exposed to vapor. These findings suggest that electronic cigarette smoke alters the immune profile of frogs with or without nicotine.
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