Variation in post-dispersal seed predation between mature forest and fallow swidden agriculture sites (young forest) was examined for 26 tree and liana species in Peruvian lowland tropical forest. Exclosures were also used to determine the relative importance of vertebrate and invertebrate seed predators. Although species differed significantly in levels of predation, predation of seeds exposed to vertebrates was high (>75%) for all species, while seed predation by invertebrates was lower and more variable. Seed and seedling predation by insects was significantly higher in mature forest, while seed predation by rodents was higher in fallow areas. Other sources of mortality (primarily desiccation) were higher for seeds in fallow areas. The percentage of seeds moved was significantly different among species but not between forests.
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