In 15 experiments from 1993 to 2002, we led cranes, geese, and swans on their first southward migration with either ultralight aircraft or vehicles on the ground. These experiments reveal that large birds can be readily trained to follow, and most will return north (and south) in subsequent migrations unassisted. These techniques can be used to teach birds new (or forgotten) migration paths. Although we are constantly improving our training techniques, we now have an operational program that can be broadly applied to those species whose juveniles learn migration routes from their parents.
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