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1 July 2005 Environmental, Energetic, and Economic Comparisons of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems
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Abstract

Various organic technologies have been utilized for about 6000 years to make agriculture sustainable while conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. Among the benefits of organic technologies are higher soil organic matter and nitrogen, lower fossil energy inputs, yields similar to those of conventional systems, and conservation of soil moisture and water resources (especially advantageous under drought conditions). Conventional agriculture can be made more sustainable and ecologically sound by adopting some traditional organic farming technologies.

DAVID PIMENTEL, PAUL HEPPERLY, JAMES HANSON, DAVID DOUDS, and RITA SEIDEL "Environmental, Energetic, and Economic Comparisons of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems," BioScience 55(7), 573-582, (1 July 2005). https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0573:EEAECO]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 July 2005
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