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1 November 2011 Geographic Limitations and Regional Differences in Ships' Ballast Water Management to Reduce Marine Invasions in the Contiguous United States
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Abstract
Marine species are in constant motion in the ballast water and on the hulls of the ships that ply the world's oceans; ships serve as a major vector for biological invasions. Despite federal and state regulations that require ballast water exchange (BWE), particular trade routes impose geographic and temporal constraints on compliance, limiting whether a ship can conduct BWE at the required distance (≥200 nautical miles) from shore to minimize transfers of coastal organisms. Ships moving across the Americas are largely unable to conduct open-ocean BWE, but instead often conduct exchanges inside coastal waters. Overall, strong differences exist in volumes, geographic sources, and the use of BWE for ballast water discharge among the three major coasts of the contiguous United States. Such patterns suggest important geographic differences in invasion opportunities and also argue for more effective alternative ballast water treatments that can be applied more evenly.
© 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved. Request permission to photocopy or reproduce article content at the University of California Press's Rights and Permissions Web site at www.ucpressjournals.com/reprintinfo.asp.
A. Whitman Miller, Mark S. Minton and Gregory M. Ruiz "Geographic Limitations and Regional Differences in Ships' Ballast Water Management to Reduce Marine Invasions in the Contiguous United States," BioScience 61(11), (1 November 2011). https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.11.7
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