The type of donor cell most suitable for producing cloned animals is one of the topics under debate in the field of nuclear transfer. To provide useful information to answer this question, G2/M- and G0/G1-stage fetal fibroblasts were used as donor cells for nuclear transfer. In vitro-matured oocytes derived from abattoir ovaries were used as recipient cytoplasts. In both groups, nuclear envelope breakdown and premature chromosome condensation were completed within 1–2 h after donor cells were injected into the cytoplasm of oocytes. Microtubules were organized around condensed chromosomes and formed a spindle within 1–1.5 h after activation. Decondensation of chromosomes could be seen within 2–4 h after activation. Reformation of the new nuclear envelope occurred 4–6 h after activation and was followed by nuclear swelling and formation of a pronucleus-like structure (PN) 8–12 h after activation. Most (80.6%) of the reconstructed oocytes derived from G2/M cells extruded polar body-like structures (PB). However, a much lower frequency of PB (21.7%) was observed in the reconstructed oocytes derived from G0/G1 donors. A variety of PN and PB combinations were observed in reconstructed oocytes derived from G2/M-stage donors, including 1PN 0PB, 1PN 1PB, 1PN 2PB, 2PN 0PB, 2PN 1PB, 2PN 2PB, and 3PN 1PB. Chromosomes of most embryos (10/13) derived from G2/M stage were diploid. The percentage of cleavage and blastocysts and the average nuclear number of blastocysts in the G2/M and G0/G1 groups were not different. These results demonstrate that the G2/M stage can be morphologically remodeled by cytoplasm of MII oocytes in pigs. To maintain normal ploidy, the extra chromosomes derived from G2/M-stage cells could be expelled by oocytes as a second polar body. G2/M-stage fibroblast nuclei could direct reconstructed embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.