The testis is one of several immune-privileged organs and is known for its unique ability to support allogeneic or xenogeneic tissue transplants. We investigated the possibility of deriving offspring from mice that underwent transplantation with allogeneic male germ line stem cells in the testis. Although mature adult mice rejected allogeneic germ cells and were infertile, offspring were obtained by intracytoplasmic germ cell injection using partially differentiated donor cells. In contrast, complete spermatogenesis occurred when allogeneic germ cells were transplanted into immature pup testes. Tolerance induction by monoclonal antibody administration allowed the pup transplant recipients to produce allogeneic offspring by natural mating, whereas no spermatozoa were found in the epididymis of untreated recipients. Thus, these results indicate that a histoincompatible recipient can serve as a “surrogate father” to propagate the genetic information of heterologous male donors.
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