The presence of ammonium in the culture medium has significant detrimental effects on the regulation of embryo physiology and genetics. Ammonium levels build up linearly over time in the culture medium when media containing amino acids are incubated at 37°C. Ammonium in the culture media significantly reduces blastocyst cell number, decreases inner cell mass development, increases apoptosis, perturbs metabolism, impairs the ability of embryos to regulate intracellular pH, and alters the expression of the imprinted gene H19. In contrast, the rate of blastocyst development and blastocyst morphology appear to be normal. The transfer of blastocysts exposed to ammonium results in a significant reduction in the ability to establish a pregnancy. Furthermore, of those embryos that manage to implant, fetal growth is significantly impaired. Embryos exposed to 300 μM ammonium are retarded by 1.5 days developmentally at Day 15 of pregnancy. It is therefore essential that culture conditions for mammalian embryos are designed to minimize the buildup of ammonium to prevent abnormalities in embryo physiology, genetic regulation, pregnancy, and fetal development.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.