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1 January 2005 Fowl (Gallus domesticus) Sperm Motility Depends Upon Mitochondrial Calcium Cycling Driven by Extracellular Sodium
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A relationship between extracellular Ca 2, fowl sperm phospholipase A2 activity, long-chain acylcarnitine content, and motility was demonstrated in previous work. Sperm motility appeared to depend upon Na -dependent Ca 2 cycling when sperm were incubated at body temperature without glucose. In the present work, motility decreased as a function of time when sperm were incubated in 2 mM Ca 2 prepared with either buffered isotonic sucrose or LiCl. However, this effect was less pronounced in the case of LiCl. The sparing effect of Li was attributed to the mitochondrial Na /Ca 2 exchanger. Motile concentration decreased exponentially in response to micromolar concentrations of CGP 37157, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial Na /Ca 2 exchanger. KB-R7943 mesylate, an inhibitor of the reverse mode of the Na /Ca 2 exchanger, prevented re-initiation of motility when exogenous Ca 2 was added to sperm rendered immotile by incubation with 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid, a high-affinity Ca 2 chelator. The presence of voltage-gated Ca 2 channels was confirmed by the effect of nifedipine on motile concentration. Neither motile concentration nor straight line velocity was affected by either ouabain or orthovanadate, which inhibit Na -K ATPase and Ca 2-ATPase, respectively. In summary, we infer that 1) fowl sperm motility is dependent upon extracellular Ca 2 cycling through mitochondria; 2) such cycling is dependent upon extracellular Na ; and 3) fowl sperm conserve ATP by moving neither Na nor Ca 2 by active transport. Understanding the relationship between mitochondrial Ca 2 cycling and ATP production may be applicable to long-term semen storage.

D. P. Froman and A. J. Feltmann "Fowl (Gallus domesticus) Sperm Motility Depends Upon Mitochondrial Calcium Cycling Driven by Extracellular Sodium 1," Biology of Reproduction 72(1), (1 January 2005).
Received: 16 June 2004; Accepted: 1 August 2004; Published: 1 January 2005

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