To investigate whether cytogenetic risks occur using the mouse intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique, the incidence of chromosome aberrations was compared in one-cell embryos produced by ICSI technique and those by conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique. Spermatozoa were incubated in TYH medium for 1.5–2 h before IVF insemination. For the ICSI technique, spermatozoa were incubated in five different media: TYH, Hepes-buffered TYH (H-TYH), modified CZB (mCZB), Hepes-buffered mCZB (H-mCZB), and PB1 for 0.5 h, 2–2.5 h, and 6 h before injection into metaphase II oocytes. The incidence of IVF embryos with structural chromosome aberrations was 2%, whereas the occurrence of structural chromosome aberrations in ICSI embryos was dependent on the kind of medium and sperm incubation time. When spermatozoa were incubated in TYH medium for 2 h or more, the aberration rates in the resultant ICSI embryos (4%) were not significantly different from that of IVF embryos. However, there was a significant increase in aberration rates in ICSI embryos derived from spermatozoa that were incubated in other culture conditions (6%–28%). In addition, a time-dependent increase in aberration rates was found in ICSI embryos when H-TYH, H-mCZB, and PB1 were used for sperm incubation. There was no significant difference in incidence of aneuploidy between IVF and ICSI embryos. The chromosome analysis results of one-cell embryos were reflected by the performance of postimplantation embryo development. The causal mechanism of chromosome damage in ICSI embryos was discussed in relation to the plasma membrane cholesterol, the acrosome, and in vitro aging of spermatozoa.
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