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1 January 2008 Xenogenesis in Teleost Fish Through Generation of Germ-Line Chimeras by Single Primordial Germ Cell Transplantation
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Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the only cells in developing embryos with the potential to transmit genetic information to the next generation. PGCs therefore have the potential to be of value for gene banking and cryopreservation, particularly via the production of donor gametes with germ-line chimeras. Currently, it is not clear how many PGCs are required for germ-line differentiation and formation of gonadal structures. In the present study, we achieved complete germ-line replacement between two related teleost species, the pearl danio (Danio albolineatus) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio), with transplantation of a single PGC into each host embryo. We isolated and transplanted a single PGC into each blastula-stage, zebrafish embryo. Development of host germ-line cells was prevented by an antisense dead end morpholino oligonucleotide. In many host embryos, the transplanted donor PGC successfully migrated toward the gonadal anlage without undergoing cell division. At the gonadal anlage, the PGC differentiated to form one normally sized gonad rather than the pair of gonads usually present. Offspring were obtained from natural spawning of these chimeras. Analyses of morphology and DNA showed that the offspring were of donor origin. We extended our study to confirm that transplanted single PGCs of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) can similarly differentiate into sperm in zebrafish host embryos. Our results show that xenogenesis is realistic and practical across species, genus, and family barriers and can be achieved by the transplantation of a single PGC from a donor species.

Taiju Saito, Rie Goto-Kazeto, Katsutoshi Arai, and Etsuro Yamaha "Xenogenesis in Teleost Fish Through Generation of Germ-Line Chimeras by Single Primordial Germ Cell Transplantation," Biology of Reproduction 78(1), 159-166, (1 January 2008).
Received: 8 January 2007; Accepted: 1 September 2007; Published: 1 January 2008

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