The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in regulating ovarian follicular development and steroidogenesis. IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) mostly inhibit IGF actions, and IGFBP proteolysis is a major mechanism for regulating IGF bioavailability. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA) is a secreted metalloprotease responsible for cleavage of IGFBP4 in the ovary. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PAPPA plays a role in regulating ovarian functions and female fertility by comparing the reproductive phenotype of wild-type (WT) mice with mice heterozygous or homozygous for a targeted Pappa gene deletion (heterozygous and PAPP-A knockout [KO] mice, respectively). When mated with WT males, PAPP-A KO females demonstrated an overall reduction in average litter size. PAPP-A KO mice had a reduced number of ovulated oocytes, lower serum estradiol levels following equine chorionic gonadotropin administration, lower serum progesterone levels after human chorionic gonadotropin injection, and reduced expression of ovarian steroidogenic enzyme genes, compared to WT controls. In PAPP-A KO mice, inhibitory IGFBP2, IGFBP3, and IGFBP4 ovarian gene expression was reduced postgonadotropin stimulation, suggesting some compensation within the ovarian IGF system. Expression levels of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor, and genes required for cumulus expansion were not affected. Analysis of preovulatory follicular fluid showed complete loss of IGFBP4 proteolytic activity in PAPP-A KO mice, demonstrating no compensation for loss of PAPPA proteolytic activity by other IGFBP proteases in vivo in the mouse ovary. Taken together, these data demonstrate an important role of PAPPA in modulating ovarian function and female fertility by control of the bioavailability of ovarian IGF.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 82 • No. 6