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2 March 2011 The 9-Cis Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway and Its Regulation of Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 During In Vitro Maturation of Pig Cumulus Cell-Oocyte Complexes and Effects on Parthenogenetic Embryo Production
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Abstract

The addition of 9-cis retinoic acid to the oocyte maturation culture medium has a beneficial effect on in vitro fertilized embryos. However, the mechanism of this activity is not known. Therefore, this study was done to elucidate the effect of 9-cis retinoic acid on parthenogenetic embryo production and its signaling pathway and molecular function during in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs). Concentrations of 0, 5, 50, and 500 nM 9-cis retinoic acid were added to the in vitro maturation medium, and the embryos were assessed after parthenogenetic activation. Cumulus cells and oocytes from the in vitro matured COCs were separated and subjected to RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for detecting retinoic acid receptors and measuring expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase1 and 2. The addition of 5 nM 9-cis retinoic acid to the maturation medium was beneficial for parthenogenetic embryo production. The effect of 9-cis retinoic acid was exerted directly through the oocytes via the retinoic acid receptor alpha and retinoid X receptor gamma signaling pathways and indirectly through the cumulus cells by the retinoic acid receptor beta and gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha and beta signaling pathways. The addition of 5 nM 9-cis retinoic acid-stimulated cumulus cells reaches full expansion by suppressing their excessive expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2. This study shows that 9-cis retinoic acid can exert its beneficial effect on parthenogenetic embryo production in pigs by multidimensional pathways affecting oocyte maturation.

Mohammad Atikuzzaman, Ok Jae Koo, Jung Taek Kang, Dae Kee Kwon, Sol Ji Park, Su Jin Kim, Ma Ninia Limas Gomez, Hyun Ju Oh, So Gun Hong, Goo Jang, and Byeong-Chun Lee "The 9-Cis Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway and Its Regulation of Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 During In Vitro Maturation of Pig Cumulus Cell-Oocyte Complexes and Effects on Parthenogenetic Embryo Production," Biology of Reproduction 84(6), 1272-1281, (2 March 2011). https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.110.086595
Received: 20 June 2010; Accepted: 1 January 2011; Published: 2 March 2011
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