The genus Cyphophthalmus is one of the most diverse genera of Cyphophthalmi and has been used as a model to study diversification in the Balkan region. However, the taxonomy of the group is deficient and type material is not available for study. Here we describe a new species, Cyphophthalmus solentiensis sp. nov., from the coastal region of Croatia using state-of-the-art techniques for illustrating species of Cyphophthalmi. The species, phylogenetically close to C. gjorgjevici on the basis of a molecular data analysis of four markers, is illustrated by means of stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the genitalia are imaged using confocal laser microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction techniques, allowing unparalleled visualization of Opiliones genitalia. We hope that this description stimulates research in this diverse but still obscure genus of Cyphophthalmi.
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