Aristolochia gorgona is described from the Atlantic watershed of Costa Rica and central and eastern Panama. It is similar to A. grandiflora Sw., with which it has been confused in the past. The extensive reported synonymy of A. grandiflora is reviewed and compared with the new entity. Some new terms are proposed for better describing floral structure in this species complex, and suggestions are made for its collection and study. Aristolochia gorgona is one of the largest-flowered plant species (in terms of perianth area) in the Neotropics.
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