Five new species of Hypolytrum Rich. from South America are described and illustrated. Hypolytrum amorimii and H. jardimii, both of sect. Bullata T. Koyama, are species with pseudopetioles and colored leaves, and endemic to the rain forest of southeastern Brazil. Hypolytrum bahiense (sect. Hypolytrum), a species with a lax synflorescence and two, free and lightly scabridulous floral bracts, is endemic to the rain forest of southeastern Bahia, Brazil. Hypolytrum leptocalamum (sect. Hypolytrum), a species with lax synflorescence and spike ellipsoid to cylindrical, is restricted to area of tepuis in the Guayana Highland (Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela). Hypolytrum paraense (sect. Hypolytrum), a species with three, partly connate and densely scabridulous floral bracts, is restricted to the rain forest of the Amazon Basin, in the state of Pará, Brazil.
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