Agouticarpa, a new genus of the informal Alibertia group (Rubiaceae), is described and illustrated. It comprises six species, and occurs from Costa Rica to Bolivia. Three species are here described as new: Agouticarpa grandistipula, A. hirsuta, and A. velutina. Additionally, three new combinations are made: A. curvifolia and A. williamsii (previously in Genipa) and A. isernii (previously in Alibertia). Agouticarpa is characterized by being dioecious, having elliptic to obovate, membranaceous stipules, male flowers in a branched dichasial or thyrse-like inflorescence, a poorly developed cup-shaped calyx, pollen grains with 3–7 apertures, and large globose fruits.
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